Surgery (Western Health) - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-9 of 9
Different APC genotypes in proximal and distal sporadic colorectal cancers suggest distinct WNT/beta-catenin signalling thresholds for tumourigenesis
(NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2013-09-26)
Biallelic protein-truncating mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene are prevalent in sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). Mutations may not be fully inactivating, instead producing WNT/β-catenin signalling levels 'just-right' for tumourigenesis. However, the spectrum of optimal APC genotypes accounting for both hits, and the influence of clinicopathological features on genotype selection remain undefined. We analysed 630 sporadic CRCs for APC mutations and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) using sequencing and single-nucleotide polymorphism microarrays, respectively. Truncating APC mutations and/or LOH were detected in 75% of CRCs. Most truncating mutations occurred within a mutation cluster region (MCR; codons 1282-1581) leaving 1-3 intact 20 amino-acid repeats (20AARs) and abolishing all Ser-Ala-Met-Pro (SAMP) repeats. Cancers commonly had one MCR mutation plus either LOH or another mutation 5' to the MCR. LOH was associated with mutations leaving 1 intact 20AAR. MCR mutations leaving 1 vs 2-3 intact 20AARs were associated with 5' mutations disrupting or leaving intact the armadillo-repeat domain, respectively. Cancers with three hits had an over-representation of mutations upstream of codon 184, in the alternatively spliced region of exon 9, and 3' to the MCR. Microsatellite unstable cancers showed hyper-mutation at MCR mono- and di-nucleotide repeats, leaving 2-3 intact 20AARs. Proximal and distal cancers exhibited different preferred APC genotypes, leaving a total of 2 or 3 and 0 to 2 intact 20AARs, respectively. In conclusion, APC genotypes in sporadic CRCs demonstrate 'fine-tuned' interdependence of hits by type and location, consistent with selection for particular residual levels of WNT/β-catenin signalling, with different 'optimal' thresholds for proximal and distal cancers.
Impact of Diabetes Status and Medication on Presentation, Treatment, and Outcome of Stage II Colon Cancer Patients
(HINDAWI LTD, 2015-01-01)
Diabetes is a risk factor for colorectal cancer and several reports suggest worse cancer-specific outcomes in diabetes patients. Recent studies in multiple tumour types indicate metformin may positively impact on cancer-specific and overall survival. A population-based series of stage II colorectal cancer patients treated and followed from 2000 to 2013 were analysed for baseline characteristics, treatment, and outcomes. 1116 patients with stage II colon cancer were identified, 55.5% were male and median age was 70.9 years (range 20.5-101.2). The diabetes patients (21.6%, n = 241) were older than nondiabetes patients (median 74.0 versus 69.6, p = 0.0001). There was no impact of diabetes on cancer presentation or pathology. Diabetes patients were less likely to receive adjuvant treatment (13.7 versus 24.8%, p = 0.002) but were equally likely to complete treatment (69.7 versus 67.7%, p = 1.00). Diabetes did not significantly impact cancer recurrence (HR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.71-1.63) or overall survival (HR = 1.23, 95% CI 0.88-1.72), adjusted for age. Diabetes medication did not impact cancer recurrence or survival. Cancer presentation and outcomes in diabetes patients are comparable to those of nondiabetes patients in those with stage II colon cancer. The effect of metformin merits further evaluation in patients with colon cancer.
Wild-type APC predicts poor prognosis in microsatellite-stable proximal colon cancer
(NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2015-09-15)
BACKGROUND: APC mutations (APC-mt) occur in ∼70% of colorectal cancers (CRCs), but their relationship to prognosis is unclear. METHODS: APC prognostic value was evaluated in 746 stage I-IV CRC patients, stratifying for tumour location and microsatellite instability (MSI). Microarrays were used to identify a gene signature that could classify APC mutation status, and classifier ability to predict prognosis was examined in an independent cohort. RESULTS: Wild-type APC microsatellite stable (APC-wt/MSS) tumours from the proximal colon showed poorer overall and recurrence-free survival (OS, RFS) than APC-mt/MSS proximal, APC-wt/MSS distal and APC-mt/MSS distal tumours (OS HR⩾1.79, P⩽0.015; RFS HR⩾1.88, P⩽0.026). APC was a stronger prognostic indicator than BRAF, KRAS, PIK3CA, TP53, CpG island methylator phenotype or chromosomal instability status (P⩽0.036). Microarray analysis similarly revealed poorer survival in MSS proximal cancers with an APC-wt-like signature (P=0.019). APC status did not affect outcomes in MSI tumours. In a validation on 206 patients with proximal colon cancer, APC-wt-like signature MSS cases showed poorer survival than APC-mt-like signature MSS or MSI cases (OS HR⩾2.50, P⩽0.010; RFS HR⩾2.14, P⩽0.025). Poor prognosis APC-wt/MSS proximal tumours exhibited features of the sessile serrated neoplasia pathway (P⩽0.016). CONCLUSIONS: APC-wt status is a marker of poor prognosis in MSS proximal colon cancer.
Is the routine use of a water-soluble contrast enema prior to closure of a loop ileostomy necessary? A review of a single institution experience.
(Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2015-12-04)
BACKGROUND: The aims of the study were to determine the radiological leak rate in those patients who had undergone a resection for left-sided colorectal cancer and to see if the presence of a leak can be related with the postoperative clinical period. We also aimed to identify any common factors between patients with leak. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of all patients who underwent a left-sided colorectal cancer resection with formation of a defunctioning ileostomy was undertaken. Between 2005 and 2010, 418 such patients were identified. RESULTS: A water-soluble contrast enema was performed in 339 patients (81.1 %). Of these, 24 (7.1 %) were reported to show an anastomotic leak. Data for these 24 patients is presented in this study. Twenty-three (95.8 %) of the leaks occurred in patients who had undergone an anterior resection; 95.8 % of the patients with a leak were male. Fifteen (62.5 %) patients underwent neo-adjuvant radiation. The mean length of stay in those patients shown to have a subsequent radiological leak was 18.8 days (median), compared with the overall unit figures of 12 days. Only 29.2 % of the patients who had a leak identified had an uncomplicated postoperative period. Overall 87.5 % of the patients had a reversal of the ileostomy. CONCLUSIONS: Radiological leakage is not uncommon. The majority of patients, who were shown to have a radiological leak in this study, were male, had undergone an anterior resection, had received neo-adjuvant radiation, had a longer initial length of stay and had postoperative complications. Water-soluble contrast enemas could be selectively used in patients with these characteristics.
Clinical Oncology Society of Australia: Position statement oncancer-relatedmalnutrition and sarcopenia
This position statement describes the recommendations of the Clinical Oncology Society of Australia (COSA) regarding management of cancer-related malnutrition and sarcopenia. A multidisciplinary working group completed a review of the literature, focused on evidence-based guidelines, systematic reviews and meta-analyses, to develop recommendations for the position statement. National consultation of the position statement content was undertaken through COSA members. All people with cancer should be screened for malnutrition and sarcopenia in all health settings at diagnosis and as the clinical situation changes throughout treatment and recovery. People identified as "at risk" of malnutrition or with a high-risk cancer diagnosis or treatment plan should have a comprehensive nutrition assessment; people identified as "at risk" of sarcopenia should have a comprehensive evaluation of muscle status using a combination of assessments for muscle mass, muscle strength and function. All people with cancer-related malnutrition and sarcopenia should have access to the core components of treatment, including medical nutrition therapy, targeted exercise prescription and physical and psychological symptom management. Treatment for cancer-related malnutrition and sarcopenia should be individualised, in collaboration with the multidisciplinary team (MDT), and tailored to meet needs at each stage of cancer treatment. Health services should ensure a broad range of health care professionals across the MDT have the skills and confidence to recognise malnutrition and sarcopenia to facilitate timely referrals and treatment. The position statement is expected to provide guidance at a national level to improve the multidisciplinary management of cancer-related malnutrition and sarcopenia.
An intraoperative diagnosis of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis: a case report.
(Oxford University Press (OUP), 2020-09)
Primary sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP) is an idiopathic and rare condition characterized by chronic peritoneal inflammation. We describe the case of an intraoperative diagnosis of SEP, presenting as a mimicker of small bowel obstruction. The patient was a 59-year-old male with suspected small bowel obstruction. On exploratory laparotomy, it was noted that there was thick fibrous tissue involving the visceral and parietal peritoneum enveloping grossly dilated loops of small bowel. This case reports on the histopathological features of peritoneal biopsies as well as radiological findings. There is no consensus regarding the standard management for idiopathic SEP. The present case demonstrates a significant improvement in the patient's condition with conservative management alone. A critical teaching point is that in the absence of an obvious cause, SEP is a rare but important differential diagnosis for surgeons to consider in the context of recurrent bowel obstruction.
Defining key design elements of registry-based randomised controlled trials: a scoping review
BACKGROUND: Traditional randomised controlled trials remain the gold standard for improving clinical care but they do have their limitations, including their associated high costs, high failure rate and limited external validity. An alternative methodology is the newly defined, prospective, registry-based randomised controlled trial (RRCT), where treatment and outcome data is collected in an existing registry. This scoping review explores the current literature regarding RRCTs to help identify the key design elements of RRCTs and the characteristics of clinical registries on which they are reliant on. METHODS: A scoping review methodology conducted in accordance with the Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines was performed. Four databases were searched for articles published from inception to June 2018: Medline; Embase; the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature and; Scopus. The search strategy included MeSH and text words related to RRCT. RESULTS: We identified 2369 articles of which 75 were selected for full-text screening. Of these, only 17 articles satisfied our inclusion criteria. All studies were published between 1996 and 2017 and all were investigator-initiated. Study designs were mainly multi-site comparative/effectiveness studies incorporating the use of disease registries (n = 8), procedure registries (n = 8) and a health services registry (n = 1). The low cost, reduced administrative burden and enhanced external validity of RRCTs make them an attractive research methodology which can be used to address questions of public health importance. We identified that that there are variable definitions of what constituted a RRCT and that issues related to ethical conduct and data integrity, completeness, timeliness, validation and endpoint adjudication need to be carefully addressed. CONCLUSION: RRCTs potentially have an important role to play in informing best clinical practice and health policy. There are a number of issues that need to be addressed to optimise the utility of this approach, including establishing universally accepted criteria for the definition of a RRCT.
Osteosarcopenia: where bone, muscle, and fat collide
(SPRINGER LONDON LTD, 2017-10-01)
As the world's population ages, the prevalence of chronic diseases increases. Sarcopenia and osteoporosis are two conditions that are associated with aging, with similar risk factors that include genetics, endocrine function, and mechanical factors. Additionally, bone and muscle closely interact with each other not only anatomically, but also chemically and metabolically. Fat infiltration, a phenomenon observed in age-related bone and muscle loss, is highly prevalent and more severe in sarcopenic and osteoporotic subjects. Clinically, when individuals suffer a combination of both disorders, negative outcomes such as falls, fractures, loss of function, frailty, and mortality increase, thus generating significant personal and socio-economic costs. Therefore, it is suggested that when bone mineral density loss is synchronic with decreased muscle mass, strength, and function, it should be interpreted as a single diagnosis of osteosarcopenia, which may be preventable and treatable. Simple interventions such as resistance training, adequate protein and calcium dietary intake, associated with maintenance of appropriate levels of vitamin D, have a dual positive effect on bone and muscle, reducing falls, fractures, and, consequently, disability. It is essential that fracture prevention approaches-including postfracture management-involve assessment and treatment of both osteoporosis and sarcopenia. This is of particular importance as in older persons the combination of osteopenia/osteoporosis and sarcopenia has been proposed as a subset of frailer individuals at higher risk of institutionalization, falls, and fractures. This review summarizes osteosarcopenia epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, outcomes, and management strategies.