Analysis of Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Fragranced Consumer Products
Document TypePhD thesis
Access StatusOpen Access
© 2019 Neda Nematollahi
Fragranced consumer products—such as cleaning supplies, air fresheners, and personal care products— emit numerous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), some classified as potentially hazardous. In addition, emissions from fragranced products can be a primary contributor to indoor and outdoor air pollutants, and human exposure risks. Further, exposure to volatile emissions from fragranced products has been associated with adverse human health effects in approximately one-third of Australians. However, fragranced products are exempt from full ingredient disclosure, thus limiting information and awareness about emissions. Moreover, relatively little prior research has analysed emissions from these products. The overall aim of this thesis research is to investigate volatile emissions from a wide range of fragranced consumer products. As a three-part research study, it investigates VOCs emitted from 200 products in three groups: 42 baby products, 24 essential oils, and 134 consumer products. Products include both regular versions and those with claims of being green or related terms such as organic or natural. Volatile emissions from each individual product were analysed using headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Overall, the study found 2,817 VOCs, including 848 potentially hazardous VOCs, emitted from the 200 products. Specifically, for each group of products, the study found (1) 684 VOCs including 207 potentially hazardous VOCs in baby products; (2) 589 VOCs including 124 potentially hazardous VOCs in essential oils; and (3) 1,538 VOCs including 517 potentially hazardous VOCs in consumer products. Across the 200 products, fewer than 4% of VOCs and 9% of potentially hazardous VOCs were disclosed by being listed on product labels. For each of the three groups of products, emissions of potentially hazardous VOCs were not significantly different between regular and green fragranced products. This dissertation research provides contributions to knowledge through the analysis and comparison of relatively large number and diversity of products, a broad suite of VOCs, compounds classified as potentially hazardous, and both regular and green products. Results from this research provide new knowledge on volatile emissions from consumer products, which can improve awareness of potential exposures and effects on air quality, health, and societal well-being.
KeywordsBaby products; Essential oils; Consumer products; Fragranced consumer products; Cleaning products; Air fresheners; Fragrance; Volatile organic compounds; Emissions; Ingredients
- Click on "Export Reference in RIS Format" and choose "open with... Endnote".
- Click on "Export Reference in RIS Format". Login to Refworks, go to References => Import References