Psychiatry - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 1730
Moving clients forward: a grounded theory of disability employment specialists' views and practices
(TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2021-08-28)
PURPOSE: This study sought to better understand the views and practices of disability employment specialists working with clients with mental illness. Specifically, it explored what helps and hinders employment specialists in their work. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A constructivist grounded theory methodology was used. Semi-structured interviews with 16 disability employment specialists from four employment service providers in Victoria, Australia, were transcribed and analysed through initial coding, focused coding, and constant comparative methods. RESULTS: Analysis led to the substantive grounded theory of "moving clients forward." The key themes included "taking a firm but fair approach," "meeting clients where they are at," "getting clients ready for work," "managing the interface between clients and employers," and as a consequence, "working under pressure." CONCLUSIONS: These findings contribute the first grounded theory of how Australian disability employment specialists work with clients with mental illness and enhance understanding of employment specialists' notions of job readiness and their use of discretion in implementing seemingly contradictory employment-related policies. Practice tensions for these employment specialists could be reduced by modifying disability employment policies, and through training to deliver evidence-based practices that offer varied vocational services, pathways, and adjunct interventions tailored to clients' interests, needs and readiness for change.IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATIONAustralian disability employment specialists experience tensions between meeting the needs of clients with mental illness and feeling pressured to adhere to performance-based funding and disability employment policies.Greater emphasis on evidence-based, individualised vocational interventions would better align with a recovery orientation and offer vocational options tailored to the needs and goals of job seekers with mental illnessFurther training and systemic support is needed for disability employment specialists to adopt evidence-based practices in their work with jobseekers with mental illness.Since Australian disability employment specialists describe considering the "job readiness" of clients in practice, the usefulness of this concept merits further investigation.
The cytokine storms of COVID-19, H1N1 influenza, CRS and MAS compared. Can one sized treatment fit all?
(ACADEMIC PRESS LTD- ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2021-08-01)
An analysis of published data appertaining to the cytokine storms of COVID-19, H1N1 influenza, cytokine release syndrome (CRS), and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) reveals many common immunological and biochemical abnormalities. These include evidence of a hyperactive coagulation system with elevated D-dimer and ferritin levels, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) and microthrombi coupled with an activated and highly permeable vascular endothelium. Common immune abnormalities include progressive hypercytokinemia with elevated levels of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β, proinflammatory chemokines, activated macrophages and increased levels of nuclear factor kappa beta (NFκB). Inflammasome activation and release of damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) is common to COVID-19, H1N1, and MAS but does not appear to be a feature of CRS. Elevated levels of IL-18 are detected in patients with COVID-19 and MAS but have not been reported in patients with H1N1 influenza and CRS. Elevated interferon-γ is common to H1N1, MAS, and CRS but levels of this molecule appear to be depressed in patients with COVID-19. CD4+ T, CD8+ and NK lymphocytes are involved in the pathophysiology of CRS, MAS, and possibly H1N1 but are reduced in number and dysfunctional in COVID-19. Additional elements underpinning the pathophysiology of cytokine storms include Inflammasome activity and DAMPs. Treatment with anakinra may theoretically offer an avenue to positively manipulate the range of biochemical and immune abnormalities reported in COVID-19 and thought to underpin the pathophysiology of cytokine storms beyond those manipulated via the use of, canakinumab, Jak inhibitors or tocilizumab. Thus, despite the relative success of tocilizumab in reducing mortality in COVID-19 patients already on dexamethasone and promising results with Baricitinib, the combination of anakinra in combination with dexamethasone offers the theoretical prospect of further improvements in patient survival. However, there is currently an absence of trial of evidence in favour or contravening this proposition. Accordingly, a large well powered blinded prospective randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test this hypothesis is recommended.
The prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities during the SARS and COVID-19 epidemics: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) are associated with various psychiatric comorbidities. This is a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities in all subpopulations during the SARS and COVID-19 epidemics. A systematic literature search was conducted in major international (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, PsycINFO) and Chinese (China National Knowledge Internet [CNKI] and Wanfang) databases to identify studies reporting prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities in all subpopulations during the SARS and COVID-19 epidemics. Data analyses were conducted using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Version 2.0 (CMA V2.0). Eighty-two studies involving 96,100 participants were included. The overall prevalence of depressive symptoms (depression hereinafter), anxiety symptoms (anxiety hereinafter), stress, distress, insomnia symptoms, post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and poor mental health during the COVID-19 epidemic were 23.9% (95% CI: 18.4%-30.3%), 23.4% (95% CI: 19.9%-27.3%), 14.2% (95% CI: 8.4%-22.9%), 16.0% (95% CI: 8.4%-28.5%), 26.5% (95% CI: 19.1%-35.5%), 24.9% (95% CI: 11.0%-46.8%), and 19.9% (95% CI: 11.7%-31.9%), respectively. Prevalence of poor mental health was higher in general populations than in health professionals (29.0% vs. 11.6%; Q=10.99, p=0.001). The prevalence of depression, anxiety, PTSS and poor mental health were similar between SARS and COVID-19 epidemics (all p values>0.05). Psychiatric comorbidities were common in different subpopulations during both the SARS and COVID-19 epidemics. Considering the negative impact of psychiatric comorbidities on health and wellbeing, timely screening and appropriate interventions for psychiatric comorbidities should be conducted for subpopulations affected by such serious epidemics.
Short-term neuropsychiatric outcomes and quality of life in COVID-19 survivors
BACKGROUND: The general medical impacts of coronavirus (COVID-19) are increasingly appreciated. However, its impact on neurocognitive, psychiatric health and quality of life (QoL) in survivors after the acute phase is poorly understood. We aimed to evaluate neurocognitive function, psychiatric symptoms and QoL in COVID-19 survivors shortly after hospital discharge. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analysis of a prospective study of hospitalized COVID-19 survivors followed up for 2 months after discharge. A battery of standardized instruments evaluating neurocognitive function, psychiatric morbidity and QoL (mental and physical components) was administered by telephone. RESULTS: Of the 229 screened patients, 179 were included in the final analysis. Amongst survivors, the prevalence of moderately impaired immediate verbal memory and learning was 38%, delayed verbal memory (11.8%), verbal fluency (34.6%) and working memory (executive function) (6.1%), respectively. Moreover, 58.7% of patients had neurocognitive impairment in at least one function. Rates of positive screening for anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder were 29.6%, 26.8% and 25.1%, respectively. In addition, 39.1% of the patients had psychiatric morbidity. Low QoL for physical and mental components was detected in 44.1% and 39.1% of patients respectively. Delirium and psychiatric morbidity were associated with neurocognitive impairment, and female gender was related with psychiatric morbidity. CONCLUSION: Hospitalized COVID-19 survivors showed a considerable prevalence of neurocognitive impairment, psychiatric morbidity and poor QoL in the short term. It is uncertain if these impacts persist over the long term.
Short-term Neuropsychiatric Outcomes and Quality of Life in COVID-19 Survivors
<h4>ABSTRACT</h4> <h4>Background</h4> The general medical impacts of coronavirus (COVID-19) are increasingly appreciated. However, its impact on neurocognitive, psychiatric health and quality of life (QoL) in survivors after the acute phase is poorly understood. We aimed to evaluate neurocognitive function, psychiatric symptoms, and QoL in COVID-19 survivors shortly after hospital discharge. <h4>Methods</h4> This was a cross-sectional analysis of a prospective study of hospitalized COVID-19 survivors followed-up for 2 months after discharge. A battery of standardized instruments evaluating neurocognitive function, psychiatric morbidity, and QoL (mental and physical components) was administered by telephone. <h4>Findings</h4> Of the 229 screened patients, 179 were included in the final analysis. Among survivors, the prevalence of moderately impaired immediate verbal memory and learning was 38%, delayed verbal memory (11.8%), verbal fluency (34.6%), and working memory (executive function) (6.1%), respectively. Moreover, 58.7% of patients had neurocognitive impairment in at least one function. Rates of positive screening for anxiety were 29.6%, depression (26.8%), and post-traumatic stress disorder (25.1%) respectively. In addition, 39.1% of the patients had psychiatric morbidity. Low QoL for physical and mental components was detected in 44.1% and 39.1% of patients, respectively. Delirium and stress-related symptoms increased approximately 4-fold the odds of developing neurocognitive impairment. Female gender and neurocognitive impairment diagnosis were related with an increase of 2.5 and 4.56- fold odds respectively of psychiatric morbidity. <h4>Interpretation</h4> Hospitalized COVID-19 survivors showed a high prevalence of neurocognitive impairment, psychiatric morbidity, and poor QoL in the short-term. It is uncertain if these impacts persist over the long-term.
Differential Modulation of Effective Connectivity in the Brain's Extended Face Processing System by Fearful and Sad Facial Expressions
(SOC NEUROSCIENCE, 2021-03-01)
The processing of emotional facial expressions is underpinned by the integration of information from a distributed network of brain regions. Despite investigations into how different emotional expressions alter the functional relationships within this network, there remains limited research examining which regions drive these interactions. This study investigated effective connectivity during the processing of sad and fearful facial expressions to better understand how these stimuli differentially modulate emotional face processing circuitry. Ninety-eight healthy human adolescents and young adults, aged between 15 and 25 years, underwent an implicit emotional face processing fMRI task. Using dynamic causal modeling (DCM), we examined five brain regions implicated in face processing. These were restricted to the right hemisphere and included the occipital and fusiform face areas, amygdala, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Processing sad and fearful facial expressions were associated with greater positive connectivity from the amygdala to dlPFC. Only the processing of fearful facial expressions was associated with greater negative connectivity from the vmPFC to amygdala. Compared with processing sad faces, processing fearful faces was associated with significantly greater connectivity from the amygdala to dlPFC. No difference was found between the processing of these expressions and the connectivity from the vmPFC to amygdala. Overall, our findings indicate that connectivity from the amygdala and dlPFC appears to be responding to dimensional features which differ between these expressions, likely those relating to arousal. Further research is necessary to examine whether this relationship is also observable for positively valenced emotions.
The long-term associations between parental behaviors, cognitive function and brain activation in adolescence
(NATURE RESEARCH, 2021-05-27)
Parenting behavior has a vital role in the development of the brain and cognitive abilities of offspring throughout childhood and adolescence. While positive and aggressive parenting behavior have been suggested to impact neurobiology in the form of abnormal brain activation in adolescents, little work has investigated the links between parenting behavior and the neurobiological correlates of cognitive performance during this age period. In the current longitudinal fMRI study, associations between parenting behaviors and cognitive performance and brain activation across mid- and late-adolescence were assessed. Observed measures of maternal aggressive and positive behavior were recorded in early adolescence (12 years) and correlated with fMRI activation and in-scanner behavioral scores on the multi-source interference task (MSIT) during mid- (16 years; 95 participants) and late-adolescence (19 years; 75 participants). There was a significant reduction in inhibitory-control-related brain activation in posterior parietal and cingulate cortices as participants transitioned from mid- to late-adolescence. Positive maternal behavior in early-adolescence was associated with lower activation in the left parietal and DLPFC during the MSIT in mid-adolescence, whereas maternal aggressive behavior was associated with longer reaction time to incongruent trials in late-adolescence. The study supports the notion that maternal behavior may influence subsequent neurocognitive development during adolescence.
Therapeutic Opportunities for Food Supplements in Neurodegenerative Disease and Depression
(FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2021-05-14)
Emerging evidence is showing nutrition as a crucial factor in the high prevalence and incidence of neurodegenerative mental disorders. Preventive interventions on neuroinflammation seem to be able to interfere with neurodegeneration. Supplementation of essential nutrients, such as long-chain-polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin E and mineral elements, may minimize inflammation, enhancing antioxidative defense, and lowering the risk and incidence of age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and neurodegenerative diseases. This manuscript reviews the current evidence on the role of neuroinflammation in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative and mental disorders, and preventive strategies for food supplementation in these neuropsychiatric diseases. Dietary supplementation-based strategies have been demonstrated to be effective in subjects with mild cognitive impairment, while weaker results have been obtained in patients with advance neurodegenerative disease. Adjunctive supplementation has also been demonstrated to improve depression, this being of marked benefit considering the comorbidity between cognitive impairment/dementia and depression. Further research is needed to improve the prescriptive precision of supplementation in patients, and to better understand potential interactions with clinical and pharmacokinetic factors.