Psychiatry - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 876
In vivo hippocampal subfield volumes in bipolar disorder-A mega-analysis from The Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics throughMeta-AnalysisBipolar Disorder Working Group
The hippocampus consists of anatomically and functionally distinct subfields that may be differentially involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). Here we, the Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis Bipolar Disorder workinggroup, study hippocampal subfield volumetry in BD. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans from 4,698 individuals (BD = 1,472, healthy controls [HC] = 3,226) from 23 sites worldwide were processed with FreeSurfer. We used linear mixed-effects models and mega-analysis to investigate differences in hippocampal subfield volumes between BD and HC, followed by analyses of clinical characteristics and medication use. BD showed significantly smaller volumes of the whole hippocampus (Cohen's d = -0.20), cornu ammonis (CA)1 (d = -0.18), CA2/3 (d = -0.11), CA4 (d = -0.19), molecular layer (d = -0.21), granule cell layer of dentate gyrus (d = -0.21), hippocampal tail (d = -0.10), subiculum (d = -0.15), presubiculum (d = -0.18), and hippocampal amygdala transition area (d = -0.17) compared to HC. Lithium users did not show volume differences compared to HC, while non-users did. Antipsychotics or antiepileptic use was associated with smaller volumes. In this largest study of hippocampal subfields in BD to date, we show widespread reductions in nine of 12 subfields studied. The associations were modulated by medication use and specifically the lack of differences between lithium users and HC supports a possible protective role of lithium in BD.
Global age-sex-specific fertility, mortality, healthy life expectancy (HALE), and population estimates in 204 countries and territories, 1950-2019: a comprehensive demographic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019
(ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2020-10-17)
BACKGROUND:Accurate and up-to-date assessment of demographic metrics is crucial for understanding a wide range of social, economic, and public health issues that affect populations worldwide. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 produced updated and comprehensive demographic assessments of the key indicators of fertility, mortality, migration, and population for 204 countries and territories and selected subnational locations from 1950 to 2019. METHODS:8078 country-years of vital registration and sample registration data, 938 surveys, 349 censuses, and 238 other sources were identified and used to estimate age-specific fertility. Spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression (ST-GPR) was used to generate age-specific fertility rates for 5-year age groups between ages 15 and 49 years. With extensions to age groups 10-14 and 50-54 years, the total fertility rate (TFR) was then aggregated using the estimated age-specific fertility between ages 10 and 54 years. 7417 sources were used for under-5 mortality estimation and 7355 for adult mortality. ST-GPR was used to synthesise data sources after correction for known biases. Adult mortality was measured as the probability of death between ages 15 and 60 years based on vital registration, sample registration, and sibling histories, and was also estimated using ST-GPR. HIV-free life tables were then estimated using estimates of under-5 and adult mortality rates using a relational model life table system created for GBD, which closely tracks observed age-specific mortality rates from complete vital registration when available. Independent estimates of HIV-specific mortality generated by an epidemiological analysis of HIV prevalence surveys and antenatal clinic serosurveillance and other sources were incorporated into the estimates in countries with large epidemics. Annual and single-year age estimates of net migration and population for each country and territory were generated using a Bayesian hierarchical cohort component model that analysed estimated age-specific fertility and mortality rates along with 1250 censuses and 747 population registry years. We classified location-years into seven categories on the basis of the natural rate of increase in population (calculated by subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate) and the net migration rate. We computed healthy life expectancy (HALE) using years lived with disability (YLDs) per capita, life tables, and standard demographic methods. Uncertainty was propagated throughout the demographic estimation process, including fertility, mortality, and population, with 1000 draw-level estimates produced for each metric. FINDINGS:The global TFR decreased from 2·72 (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 2·66-2·79) in 2000 to 2·31 (2·17-2·46) in 2019. Global annual livebirths increased from 134·5 million (131·5-137·8) in 2000 to a peak of 139·6 million (133·0-146·9) in 2016. Global livebirths then declined to 135·3 million (127·2-144·1) in 2019. Of the 204 countries and territories included in this study, in 2019, 102 had a TFR lower than 2·1, which is considered a good approximation of replacement-level fertility. All countries in sub-Saharan Africa had TFRs above replacement level in 2019 and accounted for 27·1% (95% UI 26·4-27·8) of global livebirths. Global life expectancy at birth increased from 67·2 years (95% UI 66·8-67·6) in 2000 to 73·5 years (72·8-74·3) in 2019. The total number of deaths increased from 50·7 million (49·5-51·9) in 2000 to 56·5 million (53·7-59·2) in 2019. Under-5 deaths declined from 9·6 million (9·1-10·3) in 2000 to 5·0 million (4·3-6·0) in 2019. Global population increased by 25·7%, from 6·2 billion (6·0-6·3) in 2000 to 7·7 billion (7·5-8·0) in 2019. In 2019, 34 countries had negative natural rates of increase; in 17 of these, the population declined because immigration was not sufficient to counteract the negative rate of decline. Globally, HALE increased from 58·6 years (56·1-60·8) in 2000 to 63·5 years (60·8-66·1) in 2019. HALE increased in 202 of 204 countries and territories between 2000 and 2019. INTERPRETATION:Over the past 20 years, fertility rates have been dropping steadily and life expectancy has been increasing, with few exceptions. Much of this change follows historical patterns linking social and economic determinants, such as those captured by the GBD Socio-demographic Index, with demographic outcomes. More recently, several countries have experienced a combination of low fertility and stagnating improvement in mortality rates, pushing more populations into the late stages of the demographic transition. Tracking demographic change and the emergence of new patterns will be essential for global health monitoring. FUNDING:Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
Invited Review: The spectrum of neuropathology in COVID-19
There is increasing evidence that patients with Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) present with neurological and psychiatric symptoms. Anosmia, hypogeusia, headache, nausea and altered consciousness are commonly described, although there are emerging clinical reports of more serious and specific conditions such as acute cerebrovascular accident, encephalitis and demyelinating disease. Whether these presentations are directly due to viral invasion of the central nervous system (CNS) or caused by indirect mechanisms has yet to be established. Neuropathological examination of brain tissue at autopsy will be essential to establish the neuro-invasive potential of the SARS-CoV-2 virus but, to date, there have been few detailed studies. The pathological changes in the brain probably represent a combination of direct cytopathic effects mediated by SARS-CoV-2 replication or indirect effects due to respiratory failure, injurious cytokine reaction, reduced immune response and cerebrovascular accidents induced by viral infection. Further large-scale molecular and cellular investigations are warranted to clarify the neuropathological correlates of the neurological and psychiatric features seen clinically in COVID-19. In this review, we summarize the current reports of neuropathological examination in COVID-19 patients, in addition to our own experience, and discuss their contribution to the understanding of CNS involvement in this disease.
Intracranial and subcortical volumes in adolescents withearly-onsetpsychosis: A multisitemega-analysisfrom theENIGMAconsortium
Early-onset psychosis disorders are serious mental disorders arising before the age of 18 years. Here, we investigate the largest neuroimaging dataset, to date, of patients with early-onset psychosis and healthy controls for differences in intracranial and subcortical brain volumes. The sample included 263 patients with early-onset psychosis (mean age: 16.4 ± 1.4 years, mean illness duration: 1.5 ± 1.4 years, 39.2% female) and 359 healthy controls (mean age: 15.9 ± 1.7 years, 45.4% female) with magnetic resonance imaging data, pooled from 11 clinical cohorts. Patients were diagnosed with early-onset schizophrenia (n = 183), affective psychosis (n = 39), or other psychotic disorders (n = 41). We used linear mixed-effects models to investigate differences in intracranial and subcortical volumes across the patient sample, diagnostic subgroup and antipsychotic medication, relative to controls. We observed significantly lower intracranial (Cohen's d = -0.39) and hippocampal (d = -0.25) volumes, and higher caudate (d = 0.25) and pallidum (d = 0.24) volumes in patients relative to controls. Intracranial volume was lower in both early-onset schizophrenia (d = -0.34) and affective psychosis (d = -0.42), and early-onset schizophrenia showed lower hippocampal (d = -0.24) and higher pallidum (d = 0.29) volumes. Patients who were currently treated with antipsychotic medication (n = 193) had significantly lower intracranial volume (d = -0.42). The findings demonstrate a similar pattern of brain alterations in early-onset psychosis as previously reported in adult psychosis, but with notably low intracranial volume. The low intracranial volume suggests disrupted neurodevelopment in adolescent early-onset psychosis.
Neurological, neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental complications of COVID-19
(SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, 2020-10-01)
Although COVID-19 is predominantly a respiratory disease, it is known to affect multiple organ systems. In this article, we highlight the impact of SARS-CoV-2 (the coronavirus causing COVID-19) on the central nervous system as there is an urgent need to understand the longitudinal impacts of COVID-19 on brain function, behaviour and cognition. Furthermore, we address the possibility of intergenerational impacts of COVID-19 on the brain, potentially via both maternal and paternal routes. Evidence from preclinical models of earlier coronaviruses has shown direct viral infiltration across the blood-brain barrier and indirect secondary effects due to other organ pathology and inflammation. In the most severely ill patients with pneumonia requiring intensive care, there appears to be additional severe inflammatory response and associated thrombophilia with widespread organ damage, including the brain. Maternal viral (and other) infections during pregnancy can affect the offspring, with greater incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, schizophrenia and epilepsy. Available reports suggest possible vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2, although longitudinal cohort studies of such offspring are needed. The impact of paternal infection on the offspring and intergenerational effects should also be considered. Research targeted at mechanistic insights into all aspects of pathogenesis, including neurological, neuropsychiatric and haematological systems alongside pulmonary pathology, will be critical in informing future therapeutic approaches. With these future challenges in mind, we highlight the importance of national and international collaborative efforts to gather the required clinical and preclinical data to effectively address the possible long-term sequelae of this global pandemic, particularly with respect to the brain and mental health.
Measuring universal health coverage based on an index of effective coverage of health services in 204 countries and territories, 1990-2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019
(ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2020-10-17)
BACKGROUND: Achieving universal health coverage (UHC) involves all people receiving the health services they need, of high quality, without experiencing financial hardship. Making progress towards UHC is a policy priority for both countries and global institutions, as highlighted by the agenda of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and WHO's Thirteenth General Programme of Work (GPW13). Measuring effective coverage at the health-system level is important for understanding whether health services are aligned with countries' health profiles and are of sufficient quality to produce health gains for populations of all ages. METHODS: Based on the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019, we assessed UHC effective coverage for 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019. Drawing from a measurement framework developed through WHO's GPW13 consultation, we mapped 23 effective coverage indicators to a matrix representing health service types (eg, promotion, prevention, and treatment) and five population-age groups spanning from reproductive and newborn to older adults (≥65 years). Effective coverage indicators were based on intervention coverage or outcome-based measures such as mortality-to-incidence ratios to approximate access to quality care; outcome-based measures were transformed to values on a scale of 0-100 based on the 2·5th and 97·5th percentile of location-year values. We constructed the UHC effective coverage index by weighting each effective coverage indicator relative to its associated potential health gains, as measured by disability-adjusted life-years for each location-year and population-age group. For three tests of validity (content, known-groups, and convergent), UHC effective coverage index performance was generally better than that of other UHC service coverage indices from WHO (ie, the current metric for SDG indicator 3.8.1 on UHC service coverage), the World Bank, and GBD 2017. We quantified frontiers of UHC effective coverage performance on the basis of pooled health spending per capita, representing UHC effective coverage index levels achieved in 2019 relative to country-level government health spending, prepaid private expenditures, and development assistance for health. To assess current trajectories towards the GPW13 UHC billion target-1 billion more people benefiting from UHC by 2023-we estimated additional population equivalents with UHC effective coverage from 2018 to 2023. FINDINGS: Globally, performance on the UHC effective coverage index improved from 45·8 (95% uncertainty interval 44·2-47·5) in 1990 to 60·3 (58·7-61·9) in 2019, yet country-level UHC effective coverage in 2019 still spanned from 95 or higher in Japan and Iceland to lower than 25 in Somalia and the Central African Republic. Since 2010, sub-Saharan Africa showed accelerated gains on the UHC effective coverage index (at an average increase of 2·6% [1·9-3·3] per year up to 2019); by contrast, most other GBD super-regions had slowed rates of progress in 2010-2019 relative to 1990-2010. Many countries showed lagging performance on effective coverage indicators for non-communicable diseases relative to those for communicable diseases and maternal and child health, despite non-communicable diseases accounting for a greater proportion of potential health gains in 2019, suggesting that many health systems are not keeping pace with the rising non-communicable disease burden and associated population health needs. In 2019, the UHC effective coverage index was associated with pooled health spending per capita (r=0·79), although countries across the development spectrum had much lower UHC effective coverage than is potentially achievable relative to their health spending. Under maximum efficiency of translating health spending into UHC effective coverage performance, countries would need to reach $1398 pooled health spending per capita (US$ adjusted for purchasing power parity) in order to achieve 80 on the UHC effective coverage index. From 2018 to 2023, an estimated 388·9 million (358·6-421·3) more population equivalents would have UHC effective coverage, falling well short of the GPW13 target of 1 billion more people benefiting from UHC during this time. Current projections point to an estimated 3·1 billion (3·0-3·2) population equivalents still lacking UHC effective coverage in 2023, with nearly a third (968·1 million [903·5-1040·3]) residing in south Asia. INTERPRETATION: The present study demonstrates the utility of measuring effective coverage and its role in supporting improved health outcomes for all people-the ultimate goal of UHC and its achievement. Global ambitions to accelerate progress on UHC service coverage are increasingly unlikely unless concerted action on non-communicable diseases occurs and countries can better translate health spending into improved performance. Focusing on effective coverage and accounting for the world's evolving health needs lays the groundwork for better understanding how close-or how far-all populations are in benefiting from UHC. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
A novel way to quantify schizophrenia symptoms in clinical trials
BACKGROUND: A major problem in quantifying symptoms of schizophrenia is establishing a reliable distinction between enduring and dynamic aspects of psychopathology. This is critical for accurate diagnosis, monitoring and evaluating treatment effects in both clinical practice and trials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We applied Generalizability Theory, a robust novel method to distinguish between dynamic and stable aspects of schizophrenia symptoms in the widely used Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) using a longitudinal measurement design. The sample included 107 patients with chronic schizophrenia assessed using the PANSS at five time points over a 24-week period during a multi-site clinical trial of N-Acetylcysteine as an add-on to maintenance medication for the treatment of chronic schizophrenia. RESULTS: The original PANSS and its three subscales demonstrated good reliability and generalizability of scores (G = 0.77-0.93) across sample population and occasions making them suitable for assessment of psychosis risks and long-lasting change following a treatment, while subscales of the five-factor models appeared less reliable. The most enduring symptoms represented by the PANSS were poor attention, delusions, blunted affect and poor rapport. More dynamic symptoms with 40%-50% of variance explained by patient transient state including grandiosity, preoccupation, somatic concerns, guilt feeling and hallucinatory behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: Identified dynamic symptoms are more amendable to change and should be the primary target of interventions aiming at effectively treating schizophrenia. Separating out the dynamic symptoms would increase assay sensitivity in trials, reduce the signal to noise ratio and increase the potential to detect the effects of novel therapies in clinical trials.
No Effects of Cognitive Remediation on Cerebral White Matter in Individuals at Ultra-High Risk for Psychosis-A Randomized Clinical Trial
(FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2020-08-28)
Background: Individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) present with subtle alterations in cerebral white matter (WM), which appear to be associated with clinical and functional outcome. The effect of cognitive remediation on WM organization in UHR individuals has not been investigated previously. Methods: In a randomized, clinical trial, UHR individuals aged 18 to 40 years were assigned to treatment as usual (TAU) or TAU plus cognitive remediation for 20 weeks. Cognitive remediation comprised 20 x 2-h sessions of neurocognitive and social-cognitive training. Primary outcome was whole brain fractional anisotropy derived from diffusion weighted imaging, statistically tested as an interaction between timepoint and treatment group. Secondary outcomes were restricted to five predefined region of interest (ROI) analyses on fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity, radial diffusivity and mean diffusivity. For significant timepoint and treatment group interactions within these five ROIs, we explored associations between longitudinal changes in WM and cognitive functions/clinical symptoms. Finally, we explored dose-response effects of cognitive remediation on WM. Results: A total of 111 UHR individuals were included. Attrition-rate was 26%. The cognitive remediation group completed on average 12 h of neurocognitive training, which was considerably lower than per protocol. We found no effect of cognitive remediation on whole-brain FA when compared to treatment as usual. Secondary ROI analyses revealed a nominal significant interaction between timepoint*treatment of AD in left medial lemniscus (P=0.016) which did not survive control for multiple comparisons. The exploratory test showed that this change in AD correlated to improvements of mental flexibility in the cognitive remediation group (p=0.001). We found no dose-response effect of neurocognitive training on WM. Conclusions: Cognitive remediation comprising 12 h of neurocognitive training on average did not improve global or regional WM organization in UHR individuals. Further investigations of duration and intensity of cognitive training as necessary prerequisites of neuroplasticity-based changes are warranted. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT02098408.
What we learn about bipolar disorder from large-scale neuroimaging: Findings and future directions from theENIGMABipolar Disorder Working Group
MRI-derived brain measures offer a link between genes, the environment and behavior and have been widely studied in bipolar disorder (BD). However, many neuroimaging studies of BD have been underpowered, leading to varied results and uncertainty regarding effects. The Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Bipolar Disorder Working Group was formed in 2012 to empower discoveries, generate consensus findings and inform future hypothesis-driven studies of BD. Through this effort, over 150 researchers from 20 countries and 55 institutions pool data and resources to produce the largest neuroimaging studies of BD ever conducted. The ENIGMA Bipolar Disorder Working Group applies standardized processing and analysis techniques to empower large-scale meta- and mega-analyses of multimodal brain MRI and improve the replicability of studies relating brain variation to clinical and genetic data. Initial BD Working Group studies reveal widespread patterns of lower cortical thickness, subcortical volume and disrupted white matter integrity associated with BD. Findings also include mapping brain alterations of common medications like lithium, symptom patterns and clinical risk profiles and have provided further insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms of BD. Here we discuss key findings from the BD working group, its ongoing projects and future directions for large-scale, collaborative studies of mental illness.
Using Brain Imaging to Improve Spatial Targeting of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Depression.
(Elsevier BV, 2020-06-07)
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is an effective treatment for depression but is limited in that the optimal therapeutic target remains unknown. Early TMS trials lacked a focal target and thus positioned the TMS coil over the prefrontal cortex using scalp measurements. Over time, it became clear that this method leads to variation in the stimulation site and that this could contribute to heterogeneity in antidepressant response. Newer methods allow for precise positioning of the TMS coil over a specific brain location, but leveraging these precise methods requires a more precise therapeutic target. We review how neuroimaging is being used to identify a more focal therapeutic target for depression. We highlight recent studies showing that more effective TMS targets in the frontal cortex are functionally connected to deep limbic regions such as the subgenual cingulate cortex. We review how connectivity might be used to identify an optimal TMS target for use in all patients and potentially even a personalized target for each individual patient. We address the clinical implications of this emerging field and highlight critical questions for future research.
Genetic comorbidity between major depression and cardio-metabolic traits, stratified by age at onset of major depression
It is imperative to understand the specific and shared etiologies of major depression and cardio-metabolic disease, as both traits are frequently comorbid and each represents a major burden to society. This study examined whether there is a genetic association between major depression and cardio-metabolic traits and if this association is stratified by age at onset for major depression. Polygenic risk scores analysis and linkage disequilibrium score regression was performed to examine whether differences in shared genetic etiology exist between depression case control status (N cases = 40,940, N controls = 67,532), earlier (N = 15,844), and later onset depression (N = 15,800) with body mass index, coronary artery disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes in 11 data sets from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, Generation Scotland, and UK Biobank. All cardio-metabolic polygenic risk scores were associated with depression status. Significant genetic correlations were found between depression and body mass index, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes. Higher polygenic risk for body mass index, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes was associated with both early and later onset depression, while higher polygenic risk for stroke was associated with later onset depression only. Significant genetic correlations were found between body mass index and later onset depression, and between coronary artery disease and both early and late onset depression. The phenotypic associations between major depression and cardio-metabolic traits may partly reflect their overlapping genetic etiology irrespective of the age depression first presents.
Sparse coupled logistic regression to estimate co-activation and modulatory influences of brain regions.
(IOP Publishing, 2020-07-13)
Accurate mapping of the functional interactions between remote brain areas with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging requires the quantification of their underlying dynamics. In conventional methodological pipelines, a spatial scale of interest is first selected, and dynamic analysis then proceeds at this hypothesised level of complexity. If large-scale functional networks or states are studied, more local regional rearrangements are then not described, potentially missing important neurobiological information. Here, we propose a novel mathematical framework that jointly estimates resting-state functional networks, and spatially more localised cross-regional modulations. To do so, the changes in activity of each brain region are modelled by a logistic regression including co-activation coefficients (reflective of network assignment, as they highlight simultaneous activations across areas) and causal interplays (denoting finer regional cross-talks, when one region active at timetmodulates thettot+1 transition likelihood of another area). A two-parameter L1 regularisation scheme is used to make these two sets of coefficients sparse: one controls overall sparsity, while the other governs the trade-off between co-activations and causal interplays, enabling to properly fit the data despite the yet unknown balance between both types of couplings. Across a range of simulation settings, we show that the framework successfully retrieves the two types of cross-regional interactions at once. Performance across noise and sample size settings was globally on par with that of other existing methods, with the potential to reveal more precise information missed by alternative approaches. Preliminary application to experimental data revealed that in the resting brain, co-activations and causal modulations co-exist with a varying balance across regions. Our methodological pipeline offers a conceptually elegant alternative for the assessment of functional brain dynamics, and can be downloaded at https://c4science.ch/source/Sparse_logistic_regression.git.