Psychiatry - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 1988
Changes in negative symptoms are linked to white matter changes in superior longitudinal fasciculus in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis
AIM: Growing evidence suggests that subtle white matter (WM) alterations are associated with psychopathology in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR). However, the longitudinal relationship between symptom progression and WM changes over time remains under-explored. Here, we examine associations between changes in clinical symptoms and changes in WM over six months in a large UHR-cohort. METHODS: 110 UHR-individuals and 59 healthy controls underwent diffusion weighted imaging at baseline and after six months. Group × time effects on fractional anisotropy (FA) were tested globally and in four predefined regions of interest (ROIs) bilaterally using linear modelling with repeated measures. Correlations between the changes in clinical symptoms and FA changes in the ROIs were examined with Pearson's correlation. A partial least squares correlation-technique (PLS-C) explored multivariate associations between patterns of changes in psychopathology, regional FA and additional WM indices. RESULTS: At baseline, UHR-individuals displayed significantly lower FA globally (p = 0.018; F = 12.274), in right superior longitudinal fasciculus (p = 0.02; Adj R2 = 0.07) and in left uncinate fasciculus (p = 0.048; Adj R2 = 0.058) compared to controls (corrected). We identified a group × time interaction in global FA and right superior longitudinal fasciculus, but the finding did not survive multiple comparisons. However, an increase of negative symptoms in UHR-individuals correlated with FA increase in right superior longitudinal fasciculus (p = 0.048, corrected, r = 0.357), and this finding was supported by the multivariate PLS-C. CONCLUSION: We found a positive correlation with a moderate effect between change in negative symptoms and FA change over 6 months in right superior longitudinal fasciculus. This link appeared mainly to reflect a subgroup of UHR-individuals, which already at baseline presented as vulnerable.
Neuromodulation effects of deep brain stimulation on beta rhythm: A longitudinal local field potential study.
(Elsevier BV, 2020-11)
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) holds great promise in treating various brain diseases but its chronic therapeutic mechanisms are unclear. OBJECTIVE: To explore the immediate and chronic effects of DBS on brain oscillations, and understand how different sub-bands of oscillations may be related to symptom improvement in Parkinson's patients. METHODS: We carried out a longitudinal study to examine the effects of DBS on local field potentials recorded by sensing-enabled neurostimulators in the subthalamic nuclei of Parkinson's patients, using a novel block-design stimulation paradigm. RESULTS: DBS significantly suppressed beta activity (13-35Hz) but the suppression effect appeared to gradually attenuate during a 6-month follow-up period after surgery (p = 0.002). However, beta suppression did not attenuate after repeated stimulation over several minutes (p > 0.110), suggesting that the changes in beta suppression may reflect a slow reconfiguration of neural pathways instead of habituation. Suppression of beta was also associated with clinical symptom improvement across subjects. Importantly, symptom-relevant features fell within the high beta band at month 1 but shifted to the low beta band at month 6, indicating that the high beta and the low beta oscillations may play different functional roles and respond differently to stimulation over the long-term treatment. CONCLUSION: These data may advance understanding of chronic DBS effects on beta oscillations and their association with clinical improvement, offering novel insights to the therapeutic mechanisms of DBS.
Childhood maltreatment and trauma is common and severe in body dysmorphic disorder
(W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC, 2021-08-01)
BACKGROUND: Childhood maltreatment and trauma may be risk factors for the development of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). However, the limited research to date on these topics has been constrained by either the absence of a matched healthy control group or non-comprehensive assessments. METHODS: This study assessed the prevalence and severity of childhood maltreatment and other traumatic events in 52 BDD participants (56% female) and 57 matched controls (51% female) with no history of mental illness, using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and a checklist assessing broader traumatic events. RESULTS: In comparison with controls, participants with BDD showed a higher prevalence of emotional abuse (61.5% vs. 33.3%) and physical neglect (59.6% vs. 28.1%), as well as more severe overall maltreatment, emotional abuse, and emotional and physical neglect. BDD participants were also more likely to meet cut-offs for multiple types of maltreatment and reported an elevated number and variety of broader traumatic childhood events (e.g., life-threatening illness). In BDD, increasingly severe maltreatment was correlated with greater severity of BDD symptoms, anxiety and suicidal ideation. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that childhood maltreatment and exposure to other traumatic events are common and severe in BDD and are cross-sectionally associated with the severity of clinical symptoms. Adversity linked to maladaptive family functioning during childhood may therefore be especially relevant to people with BDD and could relate to social and emotional processing problems in the disorder.
Rapid reviews: the pros and cons of an accelerated review process.
(Oxford University Press (OUP), 2021-06-29)
Although systematic reviews are the method of choice to synthesize scientific evidence, they can take years to complete and publish. Clinicians, managers, and policy-makers often need input from scientific evidence in a more timely and resource-efficient manner. For this purpose, rapid reviews are conducted. Rapid reviews are performed using an accelerated process. However, they should not be less systematic than standard systematic reviews, and the introduction of bias must be avoided. In this article, we describe what rapid reviews are, present their characteristics, give some examples, highlight potential pitfalls, and draw attention to the importance of evidence summaries in order to facilitate adoption in clinical decision-making.
Post-intensive care syndrome: A concept analysis.
(Elsevier BV, 2021-02)
OBJECTIVE: Post-intensive care syndrome is a term used to describe new or worsening multidimensional impairments in physical, psychological cognitive and social status arising from critical illness and persisting beyond hospital discharge. It is associated with high morbidity among patients discharged from intensive care units. However, due to its complexities, which encompass physical, psychological, cognitive and social impairments, the exact nature of this condition has not been fully conceptualized. The aim of this analysis therefore was to define the concept of post-intensive care syndrome. This conceptual clarity provides a general definition that is essential for practitioners and researchers to gain a comprehensive understanding of the syndrome and provide for accurate measurement of its incidence and prevalence. DESIGN: The Walker and Avant approach to concept analysis guided this investigation. DATA SOURCE: An electronic search of the literature using PubMed, CINHAL, PsycArticles, Academic search complete, Science Direct, MEDLINE and Health Source databases informed the analysis. The search included both quantitative and qualitative studies related to post-intensive care syndrome published in English between 2010 and 2020. RESULTS: Of the 3948 articles identified, 24 ultimately met the inclusion criteria. Analysis identified the defining attributes of post-intensive care syndrome as: (1) new or worsening multidimensional impairments; (2) physical dysfunction; (3) psychological disorder; (4) cognitive impairment; (5) failed social reconstruction; and (6) persistent impaired multidimensional symptoms extending beyond intensive care and hospital discharge. Antecedents were divided into two categories: pre-existing and those related to the intensive care admission. Consequences were identified as both positive (for example the establishment of coping processes) and adverse (for example decreased quality of life and caregiver burden). CONCLUSION: Post-intensive care syndrome affects more than half of patients discharged from intensive care units. This operational definition and conceptual understanding of this syndrome will help improve understanding and inform the design of preventative strategies to improve long-term consequences of the syndrome. Future research and standardized instrument development will serve to better understand the scope and characteristics of this syndrome and inform the development of possible preventative interventions.
Depression prevalence using the HADS-D compared to SCID major depression classification: An individual participant data meta-analysis
(PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2020-12-01)
OBJECTIVES: Validated diagnostic interviews are required to classify depression status and estimate prevalence of disorder, but screening tools are often used instead. We used individual participant data meta-analysis to compare prevalence based on standard Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale - depression subscale (HADS-D) cutoffs of ≥8 and ≥11 versus Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID) major depression and determined if an alternative HADS-D cutoff could more accurately estimate prevalence. METHODS: We searched Medline, Medline In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations via Ovid, PsycINFO, and Web of Science (inception-July 11, 2016) for studies comparing HADS-D scores to SCID major depression status. Pooled prevalence and pooled differences in prevalence for HADS-D cutoffs versus SCID major depression were estimated. RESULTS: 6005 participants (689 SCID major depression cases) from 41 primary studies were included. Pooled prevalence was 24.5% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 20.5%, 29.0%) for HADS-D ≥8, 10.7% (95% CI: 8.3%, 13.8%) for HADS-D ≥11, and 11.6% (95% CI: 9.2%, 14.6%) for SCID major depression. HADS-D ≥11 was closest to SCID major depression prevalence, but the 95% prediction interval for the difference that could be expected for HADS-D ≥11 versus SCID in a new study was -21.1% to 19.5%. CONCLUSIONS: HADS-D ≥8 substantially overestimates depression prevalence. Of all possible cutoff thresholds, HADS-D ≥11 was closest to the SCID, but there was substantial heterogeneity in the difference between HADS-D ≥11 and SCID-based estimates. HADS-D should not be used as a substitute for a validated diagnostic interview.
Patient Expectations and Experiences of Antidepressant Therapy for Major Depressive Disorder: A Qualitative Study
(DOVE MEDICAL PRESS LTD, 2021-01-01)
Purpose: This qualitative study explored patient perceptions of the most burdensome symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD), the impact of symptoms on patients' daily lives, and patient expectations and experiences regarding the timing of onset of antidepressant pharmacotherapy. Patients and Methods: Data were collected through facilitated, patient focus-group sessions in the USA between May and June 2019. Participants were adults with confirmed MDD who reported a major depressive episode within the past 2 years, for which they had received pharmacologic treatment for ≥6 weeks. The semi-structured discussion focused on the key topics of bothersome symptoms of MDD, the impact of symptoms on quality of life, and the effects of antidepressant treatment. Interviews were audio-recorded; findings were summarized using a content-analysis approach. Results: Five focus-group sessions were undertaken, involving a total of 29 patients (each attended one session; mean age, 43.4 years; 72.4% female). Mean time since confirmed diagnosis of MDD was 13.1 years. The most commonly prescribed antidepressants received were bupropion (41.4% of participants), escitalopram (34.5%), and sertraline (34.5%). The most frequently reported bothersome MDD symptoms were fatigue (mentioned by 58.6% of participants), lack of motivation/loss of interest (51.7%), anxiety/panic (44.8%), sadness (41.4%), and lack of concentration/brain fog (41.4%). Socialization, family life, and work were the areas in which quality of life was most impacted. Participants expressed dissatisfaction with their antidepressant treatment. Fast symptom resolution was mentioned as a priority (defined as <1 week by 38.5% of participants and ≤1 month by 65.4%). Most participants had not experienced fast relief from their symptoms with current or previous antidepressant medications. Conclusion: Results of this qualitative study suggest that fatigue, anhedonia, cognitive symptoms, and anxiety are some of the most bothersome symptoms for patients with MDD and highlight the importance of obtaining rapid relief from these symptoms in order to improve outcomes and patient satisfaction with antidepressant medication.
The Prevalence of Depressive and Insomnia Symptoms, and Their Association With Quality of Life Among Older Adults in Rural Areas in China.
(Frontiers Media SA, 2021)
Background: There are few studies on the epidemiology of depression, insomnia, and their association with quality of life (QOL) in older adults living in rural China. This study examined the prevalence of depressive and insomnia symptoms, and their association with QOL in community-dwelling older adults in a rural area in Anhui province, China. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the rural areas of four cities (Hefei, Huaibei, Anqing, and Xuancheng) in Anhui province between July and October, 2019 using random sampling method. All community-dwelling residents from the selected villages who met the study entry criteria were invited to participate in this study. Depressive and insomnia symptoms and QOL were assessed with the Chinese version of self-reported Center for Epidemiological Survey Depression Scale (CES-D), the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and the 26-item World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief version (WHOQOL-BREF), respectively. Results: A total of 871 older adults were included. The prevalence of overall depressive symptoms, insomnia symptoms, and comorbid depressive and insomnia symptoms were 34.0% [95% confidence intervals (95% CI): 30.8-37.1%], 45.7% (95% CI: 42.4-49.0%) and 20.3% (95% CI: 17.6-23.0%), respectively. Older adults with depressive symptoms, insomnia symptoms, and comorbid depressive and insomnia symptoms had lower scores in QOL compared to those without. Depressive symptoms were positively associated with living with families [Odd Ratio (OR) = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.31-2.54] and negatively associated with current drinking (OR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.33-0.72). Insomnia symptoms were negatively associated with fair and good financial status (fair: OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.38-0.75; good: OR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.14-0.64) and current drinking (OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.45-0.93), and positively associated with more frequent major medical conditions (OR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.16-1.51). Comorbid depressive and insomnia symptoms were positively associated with living with families (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.36-3.00), and negatively associated with fair and good financial status (fair: OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.41-0.89; good: OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.12-0.95) and current drinking (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.35-0.92). Conclusion: Depressive and insomnia symptoms were common in older adults living in rural areas in China. Considering the negative health outcomes caused by depressive and insomnia symptoms, regular screening and effective treatments should be developed for this population.
Ethnic Differences in Barriers and Enablers to Physical Activity Among Older Adults
(FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2021-09-10)
Despite its well-known health benefits, most older adults do not commit to undertaking sufficient physical activity (PA). In this study we aimed to examine the perceived benefits of and barriers and enablers to PA from the perspectives of older Caucasian and Chinese adults living in Australia. Individual and group interviews with 17 Caucasian (mean age: 72.8 years) and 47 Chinese adults (mean age: 74.0 years) were conducted and analysed using thematic analysis. Overall, participants knew about the benefits of PA on physical health but had inconsistent views on its benefits on mental and cognitive health. Older Caucasian and Chinese adults reported similar barriers (e.g., health issues, costs, bad weather and lack of time) and enablers (e.g., improving health; environmental enablers such as adequate and walkable spaces and good natural environment; peer support; and self-motivation) to PA. In comparison, older Chinese adults reported barriers more often, and reported some unique barriers relating to language and culture issues. The findings contribute to developing targeted PA programs for older Caucasian and Chinese adults.