Quality of Service (QoS)-aware Application Management in Fog Computing Environments
AuthorMahmud, MD Redowan
AffiliationComputing and Information Systems
Document TypePhD thesis
Access StatusOpen Access
© 2020 MD Redowan Mahmud
In recent years, the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm is being rapidly adopted in the creation of applications for various smart-city, healthcare, Industry 4.0, and Agtech-based Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). Usually, the IoT-enabled CPSs reside at a multi-hop distance from the Cloud datacentres. As a consequence, the Cloud-centric execution of IoT applications often fails to meet their Quality of Service (QoS) requirements in real-time. Fog computing, an extension of Cloud at the edge network, can execute the IoT applications closer to the data sources. Thus, it can improve the application service delivery time and reduce network congestion. However, the Fog computing nodes are highly distributed, heterogeneous, and most of them are constrained in resources and spatial sharing. Therefore, without efficient management of applications, it is complicated to harness the capabilities of Fog computing for different IoT-driven use cases. Application management is an integral part of computing resource management. It can be ensured by finding suitable placement options for the applications within the computing infrastructure. In IoT-enabled CPSs, different entities including, applications, Fog nodes, IoT devices, users, and service providers, continuously interact with each other. This thesis focuses on application placement in Fog environments considering i. the characteristics of the applications, ii. the communication delay among the Fog nodes, iii. the context of the IoT devices, iv. the service expectations of the users, and v. the operational cost of the providers. It demonstrates how the placement of applications from the perspectives of different system entities can improve the application’s QoS, the user’s Quality of Experience (QoE), and the provider’s profit. This thesis advances the state-of-the-art by making the following contributions: 1. A comprehensive taxonomy and literature review on application management approaches in Fog computing environments 2. An application characteristics-driven model that facilitates application classification and selection for Fog-based placement at the gateway level. 3. A latency-aware application management policy that deals with the service delivery deadline and the inter-nodal communication delay simultaneously while placing the applications over distributed Fog nodes. 4. A context-aware application management policy that optimizes the service time of applications by coordinating the sensing frequency and data size of IoT devices with the capacity of Fog nodes. 5. A QoE-aware application management policy that prioritizes the placement of applications in Fog environments based on user expectations. 6. A pricing model for integrated Fog-Cloud environments that enhances the profit of providers for executing the applications in the proximity of end-users.
KeywordsFog Computing; Quality of Service (QoS); Quality of Experience (QoE); Edge Computing; Internet of Things (IoT); Fog-Cloud Integration; Application Management; Application Placement; Application Classification; Context-awareness; Latency-awareness; Resource Allocation; Resource Optimization
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