Increasing walking among older people: A test of behaviour change techniques using factorial randomised N-of-1 trials
AuthorNyman, SR; Goodwin, K; Kwasnicka, D; Callaway, A
Source TitlePSYCHOLOGY & HEALTH
PublisherTAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD
University of Melbourne Author/sKwasnicka, Dominika
Document TypeJournal Article
CitationsNyman, S. R., Goodwin, K., Kwasnicka, D. & Callaway, A. (2016). Increasing walking among older people: A test of behaviour change techniques using factorial randomised N-of-1 trials. PSYCHOLOGY & HEALTH, 31 (3), pp.313-330. https://doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2015.1088014.
Access StatusAccess this item via the Open Access location
Open Access at PMChttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4784513
OBJECTIVE: Evaluations of techniques to promote physical activity usually adopt a randomised controlled trial (RCT). Such designs inform how a technique performs on average but cannot be used for treatment of individuals. Our objective was to conduct the first N-of-1 RCTs of behaviour change techniques with older people and test the effectiveness of the techniques for increasing walking within individuals. DESIGN: Eight adults aged 60-87 were randomised to a 2 (goal-setting vs. active control) × 2 (self-monitoring vs. active control) factorial RCT over 62 days. The time series data were analysed for each single case using linear regressions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Walking was objectively measured using pedometers. RESULTS: Compared to control days, goal-setting increased walking in 4 out of 8 individuals and self-monitoring increased walking in 7 out of 8 individuals. While the probability for self-monitoring to be effective in 7 out of 8 participants was beyond chance (p = .03), no intervention effect was significant for individual participants. Two participants had a significant but small linear decrease in walking over time. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate the utility of N-of-1 trials for advancing scientific enquiry of behaviour change and in practice for increasing older people's physical activity.
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