Medicine, Dentistry & Health Sciences Collected Works - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 887
Evaluating a Muscle Ultrasound Education Program: Theoretical Knowledge, Hands-on Skills, Reliability, and Satisfaction of Critical Care Physiotherapists.
(Elsevier BV, 2021-09)
Objective: To evaluate learning results of critical care physiotherapists participating in a muscle ultrasound (MUS) educational program. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: A custom-made 20-hour MUS course was performed over a 2-week time period, including knobs familiarization, patient positioning, anatomic landmarks, image acquisition, and limb muscle measurements. Participants: Nineteen critical care physiotherapists with little to no prior experience in ultrasound (N=19). Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures: Theoretical knowledge, hands-on skills acquisition, and satisfaction were assessed. Inter- and intrarater reliability on landmarks, thickness, and pennation angle of quadriceps between participants was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Reliability among instructors measured prior to the course was also reported as a reference. Results: The percentage score (mean±SD) of knowledge questionnaires was 69±11 (pre-course), 89±10 (post-course), and 92±9 (hands-on skills). Course satisfaction scores ranged from 90%-100%. Pooled interrater reliability of participants (median ICC [interquartile range]) was good (0.70 [0.59-0.79]) for thickness, moderate (0.47 [0.46-0.92]) for landmarks, and absent (0.00 [0.00-0.05]) for pennation angle and the intrarater reliability was good (0.76 [0.51-0.91]) for thickness and weak (0.35 [0.29-0.52]) for pennation angle. Interrater ICC values for instructors were excellent (0.90) for thickness, good (0.67) for landmarks, and moderate (0.41) for pennation angle and intrarater ICC values were excellent (0.94) for thickness and good (0.75) for pennation angle. Conclusions: Although our sample was quite small and homogeneous, increased theoretical knowledge, high hands-on performance acquisition, and good satisfaction of physiotherapists were observed. Reliability was moderate to excellent for thickness and landmarks and absent to weak for pennation angle. Landmarking and pennation angle remain challenges for physiotherapist training in the application of MUS. Further studies are needed to identify variables that could modify reliability during MUS training.
A Rare Case of Extra-Gonadal Oestrogen-Secreting Choriocarcinoma in a Male
(SMC Media, 2021-09-03)
This report describes a rare case of an extra-gonadal oestrogen-secreting tumour in a male patient. An otherwise healthy 60-year-old man presented to our hospital with a 3-month history of shortness of breath and weight loss. Blood panels and histology supported the diagnosis of an oestrogen-secreting choriocarcinoma. Unfortunately, the patient died soon after his diagnosis. The highlighting features of this case are: (1) the difficulty of confirming a diagnosis in a rapidly deteriorating patient; (2) the rarity of oestrogen-secreting extra-gonadal tumours in males; and (3) the aggressive rate of tumour progression seen on sequential imaging.
Total Body Sodium Balance in Chronic Kidney Disease
(HINDAWI LTD, 2021-09-22)
Excess sodium intake is a leading but modifiable risk factor for mortality, with implications on hypertension, inflammation, cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review will focus mainly on the limitations of current measurement methods of sodium balance particularly in patients with CKD who have complex sodium physiology. The suboptimal accuracy of sodium intake and excretion measurement is seemingly more marked with the evolving understanding of tissue (skin and muscle) sodium. Tissue sodium represents an extrarenal influence on sodium homeostasis with demonstrated clinical associations of hypertension and inflammation. Measurement of tissue sodium has been largely unexplored in patients with CKD. Development and adoption of more comprehensive and dynamic assessment of body sodium balance is needed to better understand sodium physiology in the human body and explore therapeutic strategies to improve the clinical outcomes in the CKD population.
Activated osteoarthritis following immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment: an observational study
(BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2021-09-01)
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionized cancer therapy but can result in toxicities, known as immune-related adverse events (irAEs), due to a hyperactivated immune system. ICI-related inflammatory arthritis has been described in literature, but herewith we introduce and characterize post-ICI-activated osteoarthritis (ICI-aOA). We conducted a multicenter, retrospective, observational study of patients with cancer treated with ICIs and diagnosed with ICI-aOA by a rheumatologist. ICI-aOA was defined by (1) an increase in non-inflammatory joint pain after ICI initiation, (2) in joints characteristically affected by osteoarthritis, and (3) lack of inflammation on exam. Cases were graded using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) V.6.0 rubric for arthralgia. Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors V.1.1 (v.4.03) guidelines determined tumor response. Results were analyzed using χ2 tests of association and multivariate logistic regression. Thirty-six patients had ICI-aOA with a mean age at time of rheumatology presentation of 66 years (51-81 years). Most patients had metastatic melanoma (10/36, 28%) and had received a PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor monotherapy (31/36, 86%) with 5/36 (14%) combination therapy. Large joint involvement (hip/knee) was noted in 53% (19/36), small joints of hand 25% (9/36), and spine 14% (5/36). Two-thirds (24/36) suffered multiple joint involvement. Three of 36 (8%) had CTCAE grade 3, 14 (39%) grade 2 and 19 (53%) grade 1 manifestations. Symptom onset ranged from 6 days to 33.8 months with a median of 5.2 months after ICI initiation; five patients suffered from ICI-aOA after ICI cessation (0.6, 3.5, 4.4, 7.3, and 15.4 months after ICI cessation). The most common form of therapy was intra-articular corticosteroid injections only (15/36, 42%) followed by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs only (7/36, 20%). Twenty patients (56%) experienced other irAEs, with rheumatic and dermatological being the most common. All three patients with high-grade ICI-aOA also had another irAE diagnosis at some point after ICI initiation. ICI-aOA should be recognized as an adverse event of ICI immunotherapy. Early referral to a rheumatologist can facilitate the distinction between ICI induced inflammatory arthritis from post-ICI mechanical arthropathy, the latter of which can be managed with local therapy that will not compromise ICI efficacy.
Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Adverse Events with Anti-Interleukin 17A Agents and Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors in Rheumatic Disease and Skin Psoriasis
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this work is to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) and anti-interleukin-17 (anti-IL-17) trials for spondyloarthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and psoriasis comparing rates of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) events compared to placebo. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library were searched for double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled anti-TNF and anti-IL-17 trials of included diseases. Inflammatory bowel disease events from the RCT period were pooled and meta-analyzed using statistical methods suitable for low-event-rate meta-analysis (Peto's, Mantel-Haenszel, hypergeometric-normal model, and Shuster-Guo-Skyler). When observed data were insufficient, we performed an exploratory sensitivity analysis to compare methods. RESULTS: We identified 9551 original papers, and included 96 publications: 65 anti-TNF and 31 anti-IL-17 trials, containing 21 new and 12 flare IBD events in 28,209 participants. New IBD on anti-IL-17 occurred 0.23/100 patient-years (PY) in psoriasis, 0.61/100 PY in PsA and 1.63/100 PY in spondyloarthritis, rates similar to observational cohorts, and less commonly on anti-TNF (0/100 PY, 0/100 PY, 0.32/100 PY, respectively). No evidence of difference between groups was found, with wide CI from many pooled counts of zero, especially in placebo arms. CONCLUSIONS: IBD events were rare, occurring at rates similar to biologic-naive groups. We could not find statistically significant differences in risk of new or recurrent IBD between treatment and control groups using selected meta-analytical methods for low event rate scenarios. Meta-analyses of this topic require more IBD events, ideally without pooling heterogeneous groups. Larger, thoroughly reported trials with systematic and detailed safety reporting are required to improve risk estimation and to make accurate inferences.
Immediate effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on patient health, health-care use, and behaviours: results from an international survey of people with rheumatic diseases.
(Elsevier BV, 2021-10)
Background: The impact and consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on people with rheumatic disease are unclear. We developed the COVID-19 Global Rheumatology Alliance Patient Experience Survey to assess the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on people with rheumatic disease worldwide. Methods: Survey questions were developed by key stakeholder groups and disseminated worldwide through social media, websites, and patient support organisations. Questions included demographics, rheumatic disease diagnosis, COVID-19 diagnosis, adoption of protective behaviours to mitigate COVID-19 exposure, medication access and changes, health-care access and communication with rheumatologists, and changes in employment or schooling. Adults age 18 years and older with inflammatory or autoimmune rheumatic diseases were eligible for inclusion. We included participants with and without a COVID-19 diagnosis. We excluded participants reporting only non-inflammatory rheumatic diseases such as fibromyalgia or osteoarthritis. Findings: 12 117 responses to the survey were received between April 3 and May 8, 2020, and of these, 10 407 respondents had included appropriate age data. We included complete responses from 9300 adults with rheumatic disease (mean age 46·1 years; 8375 [90·1%] women, 893 [9·6%] men, and 32 [0·3%] participants who identified as non-binary). 6273 (67·5%) of respondents identified as White, 1565 (16·8%) as Latin American, 198 (2·1%) as Black, 190 (2·0%) as Asian, and 42 (0·5%) as Native American or Aboriginal or First Nation. The most common rheumatic disease diagnoses included rheumatoid arthritis (3636 [39·1%] of 9300), systemic lupus erythematosus (2882 [31·0%]), and Sjögren's syndrome (1290 [13·9%]). Most respondents (6921 [82·0%] of 8441) continued their antirheumatic medications as prescribed. Almost all (9266 [99·7%] of 9297) respondents adopted protective behaviours to limit SARS-CoV-2 exposure. A change in employment status occurred in 2524 (27·1%) of 9300) of respondents, with a 13·6% decrease in the number in full-time employment (from 4066 to 3514). Interpretation: People with rheumatic disease maintained therapy and followed public health advice to mitigate the risks of COVID-19. Substantial employment status changes occurred, with potential implications for health-care access, medication affordability, mental health, and rheumatic disease activity. Funding: American College of Rheumatology.
Early experience of COVID-19 vaccination in adults with systemic rheumatic diseases: results from the COVID-19 Global Rheumatology Alliance Vaccine Survey
(BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2021-09-01)
BACKGROUND: We describe the early experiences of adults with systemic rheumatic disease who received the COVID-19 vaccine. METHODS: From 2 April to 30 April 2021, we conducted an online, international survey of adults with systemic rheumatic disease who received COVID-19 vaccination. We collected patient-reported data on clinician communication, beliefs and intent about discontinuing disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) around the time of vaccination, and patient-reported adverse events after vaccination. RESULTS: We analysed 2860 adults with systemic rheumatic diseases who received COVID-19 vaccination (mean age 55.3 years, 86.7% female, 86.3% white). Types of COVID-19 vaccines were Pfizer-BioNTech (53.2%), Oxford/AstraZeneca (22.6%), Moderna (21.3%), Janssen/Johnson & Johnson (1.7%) and others (1.2%). The most common rheumatic disease was rheumatoid arthritis (42.3%), and 81.2% of respondents were on a DMARD. The majority (81.9%) reported communicating with clinicians about vaccination. Most (66.9%) were willing to temporarily discontinue DMARDs to improve vaccine efficacy, although many (44.3%) were concerned about rheumatic disease flares. After vaccination, the most reported patient-reported adverse events were fatigue/somnolence (33.4%), headache (27.7%), muscle/joint pains (22.8%) and fever/chills (19.9%). Rheumatic disease flares that required medication changes occurred in 4.6%. CONCLUSION: Among adults with systemic rheumatic disease who received COVID-19 vaccination, patient-reported adverse events were typical of those reported in the general population. Most patients were willing to temporarily discontinue DMARDs to improve vaccine efficacy. The relatively low frequency of rheumatic disease flare requiring medications was reassuring.
Temporal and mechanistic dissociation of ATP and adenosine release during ischaemia in the mammalian hippocampus
(BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, 2007-06-01)
Adenosine is well known to be released during cerebral metabolic stress and is believed to be neuroprotective. ATP release under similar circumstances has been much less studied. We have now used biosensors to measure and compare in real time the release of ATP and adenosine during in vitro ischaemia in hippocampal slices. ATP release only occurred following the anoxic depolarisation, whereas adenosine release was apparent almost immediately after the onset of ischaemia. ATP release required extracellular Ca2+. By contrast adenosine release was enhanced by removal of extracellular Ca2+, whilst TTX had no effect on either ATP release or adenosine release. Blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors substantially enhanced ATP release, but had only a modest effect on adenosine release. Carbenoxolone, an inhibitor of gap junction hemichannels, also greatly enhanced ischaemic ATP release, but had little effect on adenosine release. The ecto-ATPase inhibitor ARL 67156, whilst modestly enhancing the ATP signal detected during ischaemia, had no effect on adenosine release. Adenosine release during ischaemia was reduced by pretreatment with homosysteine thiolactone suggesting an intracellular origin. Adenosine transport inhibitors did not inhibit adenosine release, but instead they caused a twofold increase of release. Our data suggest that ATP and adenosine release during ischaemia are for the most part independent processes with distinct underlying mechanisms. These two purines will consequently confer temporally distinct influences on neuronal and glial function in the ischaemic brain.
Design and methodology of SNAP-1: a Sprint National Anaesthesia Project to measure patient reported outcome after anaesthesia
(BIOMED CENTRAL LTD, 2015-01-01)
BACKGROUND: Patient satisfaction is an important metric of health-care quality. Accidental awareness under general anaesthesia (AAGA) is a serious complication of anaesthesia care which may go unrecognised in the immediate perioperative period but leads to long-term psychological harm for affected patients. The SNAP-1 study aimed to measure patient satisfaction with anaesthesia care and the incidence of AAGA, reported on direct questioning within 24 h of surgery, in a large multicentre cohort. A secondary aim of SNAP-1 was to test the effectiveness of a new network of Quality Audit and Research Coordinators in NHS anaesthetic departments, to achieve widespread study participation and high patient recruitment rates. This manuscript describes the study methodology. METHODS: SNAP-1 was a prospective observational cohort study. The study protocol was approved by the National Research Ethics Service. All UK NHS hospitals with anaesthetic departments were invited to participate. Adult patients undergoing any type of non-obstetric surgery were recruited in participating hospitals on 13th and 14th May 2014. Demographic data were collected by anaesthetists providing perioperative care. Patients were then approached within 24 h of surgery to complete two questionnaires-the Bauer patient satisfaction questionnaire (to measure patient reported outcome) and the modified Brice questionnaire (to detect possible accidental awareness). Completion of postoperative questionnaires was taken as evidence of implied consent. Results were recorded on a standard patient case report form, and local investigators entered anonymised data into an electronic database for later analysis by the core research team. RESULTS: Preliminary analyses indicate that over 15,000 patients were recruited across the UK, making SNAP-1 the largest NIHR portfolio-adopted study in anaesthesia to date. Both descriptive and analytic epidemiological analyses will be used to answer specific questions about the patient perception of anaesthesia care overall and in surgical sub-specialties and to determine the incidence of AAGA. CONCLUSIONS: The SNAP-1 study recruited a large number of UK hospitals and thousands of perioperative patients using newly established networks in the UK anaesthetic profession. The results will provide benchmarking information to aid interpretation of patient satisfaction data and also determine the incidence of AAGA reported on a single postoperative visit.