Minerva Elements Records
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Echoes of the gothic in early twentieth-century spanish music
This thesis explores traces of the Gothic in music and related artforms concerning Spain in the early twentieth century, drawing together a number of case studies with varied proximity to Manuel de Falla and his artistic milieu. A range of Gothic perspectives are applied to a series of musical works, repertories, constructions of race, modes of performance and stage personae, and this examination is preceded by an overview of Gothic elements in their nineteenth-century precursors. The connection between Granada’s Alhambra and the Gothic is based not only on architectural style, but also nocturnal and supernatural themes that can be traced back to the writings of Washington Irving. The idea of Alhambrism and Romantic impressions of the Spanish Gypsy, both of which are associated with the magical, primitive, mystic and nocturnal elements of the Gothic, are also related to constructions of flamenco and cante jondo. The Romantic idea of the Spanish gypsy evolved into primitivism, and attitudes that considered their culture archaic can be placed in a Gothic frame. Flamenco and the notion of duende can also be placed in this frame, and this idea is explored through the poetry and writings of Federico Garcia Lorca and in his interaction with Falla in conceiving the Cante jondo competition of 1922. The rediscovery of Spanish painters Francisco de Goya and El Greco around 1900 was also in part linked with Gothic attributes. The performer Raquel Meller adopted a Goyesque visual style in her singing career, but was characterised as a ‘vamp’ when she became a movie star, notably in the 1926 silent film Carmen, in which she develops the idea of the Romantic gypsy; both phases are interpreted through the Gothic lens. Post-World War I ballets such as The Three-Cornered Hat and El Greco ballet were inspired by these artists respectively, and their Gothic elements were heightened in their modernist recasting and evocation by Pablo Picasso, Falla and other musicians, choreographers and artists. The thesis returns to the idea of Granada and concludes with a consideration of two compositions rich in Gothic allusions, from the arabesque and the nocturnal in Claude Debussy’s ‘La soiree dans Grenade’ to medieval architecture and religious practices in Falla’s Concerto for Harpsichord, Flute, Oboe, Clarinet, Violin and Cello.
Overcoming barriers to access and provision of dental care for patients with special needs in the Australian public dental system
Background Individuals with special needs report being unable to find oral health professionals with adequate experience who are willing to treat them despite the recognition of a dedicated dental specialty, special needs dentistry, to advocate for and assist with their oral health treatment needs. Aims: The aims of this study were: 1. To develop a profile of the patients receiving specialist dental care in special needs dentistry around Australia, 2. To explore the challenges associated with providing dental care to individuals with special needs in the public dental system, and 3. To identify ways to overcome barriers to treating individuals with special needs. Methods: A cross-sectional clinical audit of patient appointments was conducted at two of Australia’s largest and most well-established specialist units in special needs dentistry: the Integrated Special Needs Department at the Royal Dental Hospital of Melbourne and the Special Needs Unit at the Adelaide Dental Hospital, as well as specialised dental clinics operated by Oral Health Services Tasmania; the Special Care Dental Units. Quantitative methods were used to analyse patient demographics, referrals, medical profiles, and treatment received. Qualitative methods were used to explore the views of specialists in special needs dentistry and other oral health professionals in relation to the challenges they faced in providing care to individuals with special needs. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were employed to understand their perspectives towards the factors that influenced specialist services and the willingness of clinicians to treat patients with special needs. Results: Inconsistencies were noted between the patient cohorts being treated at the two specialist clinics that may have reflected differences in referrals, available services and facilities, and the local oral health care systems. Specialists in special needs dentistry felt that the biggest challenge facing specialist services was the strain placed on the limited specialist workforce and resources by referrals from oral health professionals not willing to treat individuals with special needs. Oral health professionals working in the primary care setting felt that the two most significant barriers to providing care for patients with special needs were insufficient training and experience in special needs dentistry or a lack of support within their work environment. Additional education and training, opportunities for networking with more experienced clinicians, and a more supportive work environment were identified as ways to overcome these barriers. Additional support provided by specialists in special needs dentistry, in the form of a network arrangement or visiting specialist, were found to improve the willingness of oral health professionals to treat patients with special needs. Conclusions: The profile of patients receiving dental care from specialist dental clinics in special needs dentistry is variable and largely influenced the willingness of oral health professionals to treat them. Providing additional support to these oral health professionals, to overcome their perceived lack of training and experience and barriers within the public dental system, will be vital to improving the willingness of clinicians to treat patients with special needs and addressing access to care issues for this population.
Investigating the role of Tyro3 in the central nervous system
One of the more remarkable aspects of myelination is the relationship between axon diameter and the correlating myelin thickness, whereby larger axons are ensheathed with more myelin. However, key regulators of myelin thickness in the CNS remain elusive. Previously, it was shown that that the tyrosine kinase receptor, Tyro3, is a key mechanistic component involved in controlling myelin thickness in the optic nerves of adult mice. Moreover, provision of the Tyro3 ligand, Gas6, dramatically increases clinical outcomes in a demyelinating mouse model. Tyro3 ligand provision also increased the corresponding total amount of myelin produced by myelinating oligodendrocytes in vitro. In addition, the promyelinating effects of Gas6 in vitro were lost when oligodendrocytes were devoid of Tyro3, suggesting the myelinating effect of Gas6 is up oligodendrocytes and is mediated by Tyro3. This thesis aims to further investigate the myelin regulatory role of Tyro3, firstly by assessing myelin thickness and oligodendrocyte maturation in a separate white matter tract in adult mice, the corpus callosum. Furthermore, this study aims to investigate the role of Tyro3 in demyelination and remyelination using the cuprizone induced, demyelinating mouse model. In addition, this study looks to identify the intracellular pathways in which Tyro3 and Gas6 regulate myelination in mouse oligodendrocytes. Finally, this study aims to understand how a nervous system devoid of Tyro3 functions by investigating action potential conduction in visual evoked potentials and compound action potentials. This research project shows that Tyro3 is a critical regulator of adult mouse myelin thickness, and that its expression is protective during demyelination and acts as a positive regulator of remyelination in the corpus callosum. Importantly, hypomyelination in the absence of Tyro3 occurred without alterations to oligodendrocyte maturation or mature oligodendrocyte density during the myelin establishment processes. In addition, although demyelination was more severe in the Tyro3 KO mice, microglial activation was normal. However, I was unable to identify an intracellular pathway in which Gas6 and Tyro3 may regulate myelin synthesis in mouse oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, the previously reported, promyelinating effects of Gas6 was not recapitulated when oligodendrocytes were grown on synthetic nanofibers rather than live neurons. These results suggest that the promyelinating effects of Gas6 could potentially be indirect and through neurons. Moreover, this study finds that in the absence of Tyro3, myelin loop arrangement at the node of Ranvier is significantly more disrupted than that of WT mice. However, the hypomyelinated and abnormal paranodal loop phenotype of the Tyro3 KO mice did not alter action potential conduction in the optic nerve or corpus callosum. To expand upon this, when the myelin structural parameters of Tyro3 deficient mice were placed within a synthetic action potential conduction model, a significant decrease in conduction velocities was observed in a single axon; however, it was lost when 400 axons were modelled as a myelinated tract. Finally, I show that in the absence of Tyro3, retinal function is significantly decreased, with fewer retinal ganglion cells present and a significant decrease in retinal ganglion cell dendritic density.
The Microbiome-Gut-Brain Axis in Huntington's Disease
Huntington’s disease (HD) is progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by the abnormal trinucleotide repeat expansion in the Huntingtin gene that is expressed throughout the brain and the body. Despite being a monogenic disease, patients show a range of central and peripheral symptoms with complex pathogenesis. Whilst the focus of much research has been on the cognitive, psychiatric and motor symptoms of HD, the extent of peripheral pathologies and its potential impact on the central symptoms has been less intensely explored. The microbiome-gut-brain axis represents the bidirectional communication between the brain and the trillions of microorganisms in the gut, whose collective genome is known as the gut microbiome. The role of the gut microbiome in modulating brain health and behaviour has been widely documented. Importantly, recent evidences have highlighted its regulatory role on the small RNA expression in the brain. Gut dysbiosis (imbalance of the gut microbiome) has been reported in a number of neurological diseases, implicating altered communication between the gut microbiome and the brain in these diseases. Hence, this body of work aimed to investigate the microbiome-gut-brain axis and its role in the pathogenesis of HD using the R6/1 transgenic mouse model. This study, first, established a dysregulation of brain miRNAs expression in the R6/1 HD mice at 12 weeks of age, prior to overt motor symptoms. At that age, we also presented the first evidence of gut dysbiosis in Huntington’s disease, coinciding with impairment with weight gain despite higher food intake. We then extended those findings by profiling the R6/1 HD gut microbiome from 4 to 12 weeks of age, representing young and adult stage of life, to pinpoint the age at which gut dysbiosis occurs in these mice, as well as to determine the changes in the gut microbiome function. In conjunction with this, plasma metabolomics was performed at 12 weeks of age to ascertain potential effects of gut dysbiosis on the plasma metabolome profile given that microbial-derived metabolites could cross the blood-brain-barrier and may regulate brain miRNA expression. Overall, we found significant gut dysbiosis as well as perturbation of the gut microbiome function in R6/1 HD mice at 12 weeks of age and not at earlier time points. Profiling of the plasma metabolome revealed no major alterations in R6/1 HD mice when compared to their wild-type littermates at 12 weeks of age. Multi-omics integration analysis revealed some novel correlations between the gut microbiome composition and the plasma metabolome profile. However, given the lack of alterations in the microbial-derived short-chain fatty acids in the blood of R6/1 HD mice, there is no strong evidence to support the role of gut dysbiosis in partially regulating striatal miRNA expression in addition to the HD gene mutation effect at 12 weeks of age. Collectively, this thesis provided new insights into the microbiome-gut-brain axis in HD, especially during the period prior to the manifestations of overt central symptoms of HD. Importantly, the work presented here highlights the gut microbiome as a potential avenue for therapeutic interventions which may be beneficial in managing the disease in gene positive individuals.
Melanoma immunosurveillance by CD4+ T cells
The immune system can recognise and control cancer cells in a process termed cancer immunosurveillance. There is increasing evidence that CD4+ T cells play an important role in melanoma immunosurveillance but considerable debate surrounds the underlying anti-tumoral mechanisms. This project thus sought to unravel the role of CD4+ T cell responses to melanoma using a transplantable orthotopic murine melanoma model in conjunction with newly generated genetically modified B16 melanoma cell lines. Remarkably, adoptive transfer of naive or activated antigen-specific CD4+ T cells was highly protective against the development of melanoma. In addition to a classical “helper” function, CD4+ T cells acted as peripheral anti-tumoral effector cells whereby they migrated into the skin, differentiated into Th1 cells and mediated local suppression of tumor development. Accordingly, we provide evidence that CD4+ T cells can directly kill melanoma cells in vitro through several cytotoxic pathways, including TNF superfamily signalling via TNF and FasL as well as perforin-dependent cell lysis. Finally, we investigated the role of MHC-II expression by melanoma on the antitumoral function of CD4+ T cells. Whilst MHC-II expression by melanoma cells promoted CD4+ T cell infiltration into the primary tumor site it was dispensable for control mediated by CD4+ T cells. This suggested an important role for indirect display of MHC-II-restricted epitopes by antigen-presenting cells within the tumor microenvironment. This was supported by visualization of melanoma-specific CD4+ T cells in the tumor microenvironment using two-photon microscopy, where activated CD4+ T cells appeared to interact with melanoma cells via intermediary cells, presumably professional antigen-presenting cells. Finally, we observed a reduction in metastatic lesions in the tumor-draining lymph node in mice challenged with MHC-II deficient melanoma cells. These data suggest that MHC-II may play context-dependent roles in control of primary tumors and lymph node metastases by CD4+ T cells. In summary, this study demonstrates the important role of CD4+ T cells in melanoma immunosurveillance and provides important insights into underlying antitumoral mechanisms.
Experimental investigations of global and local entrainment in turbulent jets and forced plumes
Turbulent jets and plumes form when a fluid of one density is injected into another quiescent fluid of same density or a different density, respectively. From violent volcanic eruptions to the smoke rising from a cigarette, these flows are omnipresent in nature and engineering environments at a wide range of scales. In this dissertation, experimental measurements of simultaneous, time-resolved velocity and density using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and planar laser induced florescence (PLIF) are carried out to analyse such flows in a laboratory setting. Unlike non-buoyant flows like turbulent jets, plumes pose a challenge in using standard optical measurement techniques PIV and PLIF, because of the local changes in refractive index, when two fluids mix. This has led to most of the previous research being focussed on global measurements of entrainment, whereas the local measurements, which are required for a clearer understanding of the entrainment phenomenon, are practically non-existent. One of the ways to circumvent this problem is to match the refractive index of two solutions while maintaining the density difference, by adding certain chemicals to them. These chemicals suggested in the literature are compared, and one of the combinations of KH2PO4 and glycerine is found to be most suitable to be used in laboratory environments. The combination, although having several advantages over the commonly used solution, is rarely employed by researchers because the attenuation coefficients are not characterised. Here we characterise these solutions for simultaneous PIV/PLIF measurements by evaluating the attenuation of light passing through it. Apart from the obvious advantages such as being safer to use, allowing higher density differences and easy to store, it also causes lower attenuation than only other characterised combination of chemicals, ethanol and NaCl. Velocity and density measurements with and without refractive index matching are carried out. Not matching the refractive index results in over-prediction of turbulence fluctuations in the flow. The error induced is directly related to the refractive index mismatch between the measurement location and the ambient. A correction procedure is developed to correct for the distortions caused by refractive index mismatch. The method is observed to work by correcting the distorted flow-fields by using a known correctly measured refractive index (RI) field as well was a modelled RI field based on the probability density fields of RI. A new second-order integral model for the prediction of volume, momentum and buoyancy fluxes is developed. The several existing integral entrainment models in the literature are compared for prediction based on the data obtained by the present experiments as well as data taken from literature. The new model fares well in comparison. The model also quantifies the contributions to entrainment coefficient from the physical processes in the flow like turbulence, pressure and the varying shape of the profiles of velocity and density. The turbulence contribution to the entrainment in jets is slightly lower than its contribution in plumes. This suggests that the higher entrainment in plumes is related more to the mean buoyancy than buoyancy induced turbulence. The local entrainment process at the smallest scales is examined. This is accomplished by identifying and tracking the turbulent/non-turbulent interface and directly calculating the local entrainment velocity on it. This is made possible by the implementation of high temporal and spatial resolution velocity and density measurements. The characteristic of local entrainment velocity for jets agrees well with the literature confirming the accuracy of the methodology to measure local entrainment velocity. The procedure is extended to application in plumes. Buoyancy on global level results in an increase of entrainment in the plume when compared to jet. However, on the local level buoyancy does not directly affect the properties of local entrainment velocity, rather the entrainment velocity scales directly with the smallest velocity scales in the flow, the Kolmogorov velocity scales. As such, from a local point of view, a larger Kolmogorov velocity scales in plumes result in larger entrainment in plumes compared to jets. The instantaneous interface exhibits fractal behaviour, and the fractal scaling obtained agrees well with the literature. Finally, we confirm that in plumes, the mass-flux across the TNTI is observed to be independent of the scale of measurement.
Multidisciplinary Care of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders
Functional gastrointestinal disorders are highly prevalent. They constitute the most common presentation for gastroenterology specialist consultation and are among the most common conditions seen by general practitioners. These disorders include irritable bowel syndrome, functional dyspepsia and constipation. Their treatment is associated with substantial costs to the healthcare system, while other costs include impaired workforce productivity. Functional gastrointestinal disorders are typically characterised by an absence of “organic” pathology. Psychological and dietary factors are thought to play some part. Despite the efficacy of psychologically-based, behavioural and dietary therapies they are rarely incorporated into specialist care, and rarely form first line therapy. The typical model of specialist care involves a gastroenterologist working in isolation; the outcome of such a model of care has not been adequately evaluated. This thesis involves a collection of studies which evaluate the outcome of gastroenterologist-only care for functional gastrointestinal disorders, other models of care, and a multi-disciplinary model of care. I have demonstrated that symptom outcomes twelve months after care in a gastroenterologist-only clinic is poor. The majority of patients were dissatisfied with care, continued to have symptoms, and were often absent from work due to symptoms. This is the first study to have evaluated the outcomes of a gastroenterologist-only clinic. In a systematic review of the literature I have evaluated the models of care which have been evaluated for functional gastrointestinal disorders. This is the first published evaluation of models of care for functional gut disorders and suggested the benefit of allied clinicians incorporated into the care of functional gastrointestinal disorders. To evaluate if a multi-disciplinary model of care is superior to a gastroenterologist-only clinic model I critically reviewed the literature regarding trial design. I then designed a comprehensive, pragmatic, randomised trial that evaluated symptoms, quality of life, psychological wellbeing and cost. The MANTRA (multi-disciplinary treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders) study is the first randomised study to evaluate the benefit of a multi-disciplinary model of care for functional gastrointestinal disorders. It demonstrated clinically-relevant, statistically significant, superiority of a multi-disciplinary clinic compared with a gastroenterologist-only standard care clinic, with regards to symptoms, quality of life, psychological wellbeing and cost. The studies in this thesis demonstrate that the current specialist-only model of care for these highly prevalent and costly conditions is inadequate. The thesis also provides a clear rationale and evidence base for a multi-disciplinary clinic model for the treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders with respect to all important outcomes.
Towards Sensor-based Learning Analytics: A Contactless Approach
Learning analytics is an emerging field in which sophisticated analytic tools are used to improve students’ learning. Driven by the data from heterogeneous resources and the latest data mining techniques, learning analytics mainly attempts at creating a more integrated and personalized learning experience for each student. Most of the studies in the field rely exclusively on keyboard-mouse interactions. Though these interactions are effective in capturing overall sentiments and reactions, they do not provide enough granularity to conduct detailed analyses about students’ learning patterns. This dissertation will provide an interdisciplinary perspective on sensor-based learning analytics by discussing data-science techniques, HCI-based solutions in relation to educational theories. The thesis begins by providing an overview of the field of learning analytics and discusses the limitations of traditional contact-based sensor technologies in education research. We then discuss how data generated from contactless sensors such as an eye-tracker and a thermal camera can provide an informative window on students’ learning experiences. By conducting two lab-based studies, we analysed students’ eye movements and facial temperature to answer our four research questions related to predicting students’ desktop activities, evaluating learning task design, measuring students’ cognitive load, and measuring students’ attention patterns while students’ perform a learning task in a digital learning environment. The first study investigates the role of gaze-based features in predicting the desktop activities of the students. The outcomes of the study reveal that gaze-based features can be used to predict desktop activities of the students, and the design of a novel set of features (mid-level gaze features) can improve the accuracy of the prediction. The study lacks strong ground truth and contains a small sample size with only one sensor data. The limitations are addressed by the second study, which is a more extensive study and utilises a multi-sensor setup consisting of an eye-tracker, a thermal camera, a web camera and a physical slider. The study focuses on understanding students’ learning process in video-based learning. The data is analysed at different granularity, and results are present as separate chapters in the thesis. The first analysis compares two types of instructional designs of the video lectures (text vs. animation) using a physical slider. The results suggest that continuous evaluation of video lectures using a slider provides deeper insight into how students experience video lectures. To confirm these findings using a physiological marker, we again compare different instructional designs of the video lecture by measuring the cognitive load of the students using a thermal camera. The results suggest that thermal imaging is a reliable psycho-physiological indicator of cognitive load, and text-based video lectures induce higher cognitive load than animation-based video lectures. The final analysis focuses on measuring the coattention between students’ attention and instructor’s dialogues by measuring how much student follows instructor dialogues in a video lecture using an eye-tracker. The results suggest that students’ attention mostly follows the instructor’s dialogues on the screen, and their direction of attention is influenced by their prior knowledge. The thesis contributes to the fields of learning analytics by combining knowledge from different disciplines – HCI-design based on contactless sensors, video lectures derived from educational psychology, and novel data science techniques to extract features from eye movements and facial temperature to understand students’ learning process in a digital learning environment. The thesis’s final chapter discusses these contributions and provides future directions for sensor-based learning analytics using contactless sensors.
Methods for evaluating query auto completion systems
Query Auto Completion (QAC) is a feature found in search interfaces to offer a list of suggested completions to a user typing their queries in the input area. The completions appear when the user starts entering their query, and subsequent modifications of the query result in an updated list of completions. A typical QAC system finds the completions by matching the current input (or partial query) from the user against a collection of strings, and the choice of implementation strategies and the costs of implementations vary based on the method of matching. We present a taxonomy of different match functions and show that in addition to the computational costs, the ranking of completions is also influenced by the approaches of matching. Setting up offline experiments to measure the computational costs or ranking methods requires access to a set of partial queries entered by the users. However, accessing query logs collected from search engines in the public space raises concerns about their privacy. To address this challenge, we propose a method of anonymizing QAC logs such that a sufficient level of information is retained in the log to understand user behavior, but a great degree of anonymity can be ensured while sharing or analyzing the log. The proposed abstract QAC log does not record the actual partial queries or the completions presented but instead records only a set of string-level and interaction statistics. Although the abstracted logs preserve a high degree of anonymity, measuring the computational costs of QAC implementations requires a set of partial query strings and not just their statistics. We show that in the absence of real partial queries, the information recorded in an abstract QAC log can be combined with a publicly available string collection to generate synthetic partial queries. A set of side-by-side experiments comparing the intrinsic and extrinsic characteristics of real and synthetic logs confirm the suitability of the generated logs for evaluating the efficiency of QAC systems.
Health sector spending and spending on HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria, and development assistance for health: progress towards Sustainable Development Goal 3
(ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2020-09-05)
Background: Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3 aims to "ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages". While a substantial effort has been made to quantify progress towards SDG3, less research has focused on tracking spending towards this goal. We used spending estimates to measure progress in financing the priority areas of SDG3, examine the association between outcomes and financing, and identify where resource gains are most needed to achieve the SDG3 indicators for which data are available. Methods: We estimated domestic health spending, disaggregated by source (government, out-of-pocket, and prepaid private) from 1995 to 2017 for 195 countries and territories. For disease-specific health spending, we estimated spending for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis for 135 low-income and middle-income countries, and malaria in 106 malaria-endemic countries, from 2000 to 2017. We also estimated development assistance for health (DAH) from 1990 to 2019, by source, disbursing development agency, recipient, and health focus area, including DAH for pandemic preparedness. Finally, we estimated future health spending for 195 countries and territories from 2018 until 2030. We report all spending estimates in inflation-adjusted 2019 US$, unless otherwise stated. Findings: Since the development and implementation of the SDGs in 2015, global health spending has increased, reaching $7·9 trillion (95% uncertainty interval 7·8-8·0) in 2017 and is expected to increase to $11·0 trillion (10·7-11·2) by 2030. In 2017, in low-income and middle-income countries spending on HIV/AIDS was $20·2 billion (17·0-25·0) and on tuberculosis it was $10·9 billion (10·3-11·8), and in malaria-endemic countries spending on malaria was $5·1 billion (4·9-5·4). Development assistance for health was $40·6 billion in 2019 and HIV/AIDS has been the health focus area to receive the highest contribution since 2004. In 2019, $374 million of DAH was provided for pandemic preparedness, less than 1% of DAH. Although spending has increased across HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria since 2015, spending has not increased in all countries, and outcomes in terms of prevalence, incidence, and per-capita spending have been mixed. The proportion of health spending from pooled sources is expected to increase from 81·6% (81·6-81·7) in 2015 to 83·1% (82·8-83·3) in 2030. Interpretation: Health spending on SDG3 priority areas has increased, but not in all countries, and progress towards meeting the SDG3 targets has been mixed and has varied by country and by target. The evidence on the scale-up of spending and improvements in health outcomes suggest a nuanced relationship, such that increases in spending do not always results in improvements in outcomes. Although countries will probably need more resources to achieve SDG3, other constraints in the broader health system such as inefficient allocation of resources across interventions and populations, weak governance systems, human resource shortages, and drug shortages, will also need to be addressed. Funding: The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
Effectiveness of an Ecological Momentary Intervention for Reducing Risky Alcohol Consumption Among Young Adults: Protocol for a Three-Arm Randomized Controlled Trial
(JMIR PUBLICATIONS, INC, 2020-03-01)
BACKGROUND: Recent research has investigated the utility of mobile phone-delivered interventions for reducing risky single-occasion drinking, also known as binge drinking. In the past five years, focus has been placed on ecological momentary interventions (EMIs), which aim to deliver intervention content in correspondence to real-time assessments of behavior, also known as ecological momentary assessments (EMAs). OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the effect of a fully automated, tailored, mobile phone-delivered EMI termed Mobile Intervention for Drinking in Young people (MIDY) on young people's risky single-occasion drinking behavior. METHODS: We will use a three-armed randomized controlled trial design to determine the impact of MIDY on peak consumption of alcohol among young people. A list of mobile telephone numbers for random digit dialing will be generated, and researchers will telephone potential participants to screen for eligibility. Participants will be randomized into one of three intervention groups. For 6 weeks, EMI, EMA, and attention control groups will complete hourly EMA surveys on their mobile phones on Friday and Saturday nights. EMI participants will receive personalized feedback in the form of text messages corresponding to their EMA survey responses, which focus on alcohol consumption, spending, and mood. EMA participants will not receive feedback. A third group will also complete EMA and receive feedback text messages at the same time intervals, but these will be focused on sedentary behavior and technology use. All groups will also complete a short survey on Saturday and Sunday mornings, with the primary outcome measure taken on Sunday mornings. A more detailed survey will be sent on the final Sunday of the 6-week period, and then again 1 year after recruitment. RESULTS: The primary outcome measure will be an observed change (ie, reduction) in the mean peak number of drinks consumed in a single night over the 6-week intervention period between the EMI and attention control groups as measured in the weekly EMA. We expect to see a greater reduction in mean peak drinking in the EMI group compared to that in the attention control group. As a secondary aim, we will assess whether mean peak drinking is reduced in the EMA group compared to the attention control group. We will use a random-effects mixed-modeling approach using maximum-likelihood estimation to provide estimates of differences in peak drinking across time periods between those receiving the intervention (EMI) and attention control participants. An intention-to-treat approach will be taken for the analysis. Individuals and study groups will be modeled as random and fixed factors, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study extends our previous work investigating the efficacy of a mobile EMI (MIDY) for reducing risky drinking among young adults in Australia, and will add to the expanding literature on the use of mobile interventions for reducing risky alcohol consumption. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registration (ANZCTR): ACTRN12617001509358p; http://www.anzctr.org.au/ACTRN12617001509358p.aspx. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/14190.