DNA Methylation at Birth Predicts Intellectual Functioning and Autism Features in Children with Fragile X Syndrome
AuthorKraan, CM; Baker, EK; Arpone, M; Bui, M; Ling, L; Gamage, D; Bretherton, L; Rogers, C; Field, MJ; Wotton, TL; ...
Source TitleInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
AffiliationMelbourne School of Population and Global Health
Document TypeJournal Article
CitationsKraan, C. M., Baker, E. K., Arpone, M., Bui, M., Ling, L., Gamage, D., Bretherton, L., Rogers, C., Field, M. J., Wotton, T. L., Francis, D., Hunter, M. F., Cohen, J., Amor, D. J. & Godler, D. E. (2020). DNA Methylation at Birth Predicts Intellectual Functioning and Autism Features in Children with Fragile X Syndrome. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, 21 (20), https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21207735.
Access StatusOpen Access
Open Access at PMChttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7589848
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a leading single-gene cause of intellectual disability (ID) with autism features. This study analysed diagnostic and prognostic utility of the Fragile X-Related Epigenetic Element 2 DNA methylation (FREE2m) assessed by Methylation Specific-Quantitative Melt Analysis and the EpiTYPER system, in retrospectively retrieved newborn blood spots (NBS) and newly created dried blood spots (DBS) from 65 children with FXS (~2-17 years). A further 168 NBS from infants from the general population were used to establish control reference ranges, in both sexes. FREE2m analysis showed sensitivity and specificity approaching 100%. In FXS males, NBS FREE2m strongly correlated with intellectual functioning and autism features, however associations were not as strong for FXS females. Fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1) mRNA levels in blood were correlated with FREE2m in both NBS and DBS, for both sexes. In females, DNAm was significantly increased at birth with a decrease in childhood. The findings support the use of FREE2m analysis in newborns for screening, diagnostic and prognostic testing in FXS.
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