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dc.contributor.authorParks, AC
dc.contributor.authorWilliams, AL
dc.contributor.authorKackloudis, GM
dc.contributor.authorStafford, JL
dc.contributor.authorBoucher, EM
dc.contributor.authorHonomichl, RD
dc.date.accessioned2020-11-26T22:42:23Z
dc.date.available2020-11-26T22:42:23Z
dc.date.issued2020-01-10
dc.identifierpii: v22i1e16211
dc.identifier.citationParks, A. C., Williams, A. L., Kackloudis, G. M., Stafford, J. L., Boucher, E. M. & Honomichl, R. D. (2020). The Effects of a Digital Well-Being Intervention on Patients With Chronic Conditions: Observational Study. JOURNAL OF MEDICAL INTERNET RESEARCH, 22 (1), https://doi.org/10.2196/16211.
dc.identifier.issn1438-8871
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11343/251960
dc.description.abstractBACKGROUND: Chronic conditions account for 75% of health care costs, and the impact of chronic illness is expected to grow over time. Although subjective well-being predicts better health outcomes, people with chronic conditions tend to report lower well-being. Improving well-being might mitigate costs associated with chronic illness; however, existing interventions can be difficult to access and draw from a single theoretical approach. Happify, a digital well-being intervention program drawing from multiple theoretical traditions to target well-being, has already been established as an efficacious means of improving well-being in both distressed and nondistressed users. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare change in well-being over time after using Happify for users with and without a chronic condition. METHODS: Data were obtained from Happify users, a publicly available digital well-being program accessible via website or mobile phone app. Users work on tracks addressing a specific issue (eg, conquering negative thoughts) composed of games and activities based on positive psychology, cognitive behavioral therapy, and mindfulness principles. The sample included 821 users receiving at least 6 weeks' exposure to Happify (ranging from 42 to 179 days) who met other inclusion criteria. As part of a baseline questionnaire, respondents reported demographic information (age and gender) and whether they had any of the prespecified chronic conditions: arthritis, diabetes, insomnia, multiple sclerosis, chronic pain, psoriasis, eczema, or some other condition (450 reported a chronic condition, whereas 371 did not). Subjective well-being was assessed with the Happify Scale, a 9-item measure of positive emotionality and life satisfaction. To evaluate changes in well-being over time, a mixed effects linear regression model was fit for subjective well-being, controlling for demographics and platform usage. RESULTS: At baseline, users with a chronic condition had significantly lower subjective well-being (mean 38.34, SD 17.40) than users without a chronic condition (mean 43.65, SD 19.13). However, change trajectories for users with or without a chronic condition were not significantly different; both groups experienced equivalent improvements in well-being. We also found an effect for time from baseline (b=0.071; SE=0.010; P<.01) and number of activities completed (b=0.03; SE=0.009; P<.01), and a 2-way interaction between number of activities completed and time from baseline (b=0.0002; SE=0.00006; P<.01), such that completing more activities and doing so over increasingly longer periods produced improved well-being scores. CONCLUSIONS: Data from this study support the conclusion that users with a chronic condition experienced significant improvement over time. Despite reporting lower subjective well-being on the whole, their change trajectory while using Happify was equivalent to those without a chronic condition. Consistent with past research, users who completed more activities over a longer period showed the most improvement. In short, the presence of a chronic condition did not prevent users from showing improved well-being when using Happify.
dc.languageEnglish
dc.publisherJMIR PUBLICATIONS, INC
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0
dc.titleThe Effects of a Digital Well-Being Intervention on Patients With Chronic Conditions: Observational Study
dc.typeJournal Article
dc.identifier.doi10.2196/16211
melbourne.affiliation.departmentMelbourne Graduate School of Education
melbourne.source.titleJournal of Medical Internet Research
melbourne.source.volume22
melbourne.source.issue1
dc.rights.licenseCC BY
melbourne.elementsid1429770
melbourne.contributor.authorParks, Acacia
dc.identifier.eissn1438-8871
melbourne.accessrightsOpen Access


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