Nocardia bacteremia: A single-center retrospective review and a systematic review of the literature
Web of Science
AuthorWilliams, E; Jenney, AW; Spelman, DW
Source TitleInternational Journal of Infectious Diseases
PublisherELSEVIER SCI LTD
University of Melbourne Author/sJenney, Adam
AffiliationMicrobiology and Immunology
Document TypeJournal Article
CitationsWilliams, E., Jenney, A. W. & Spelman, D. W. (2020). Nocardia bacteremia: A single-center retrospective review and a systematic review of the literature. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 92, pp.197-207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.01.011.
Access StatusOpen Access
OBJECTIVES: Nocardia bacteremia is a rare but severe disease associated with high mortality. This systematic review is the largest and most comprehensive review performed over the past 20 years. METHODS: A single-center retrospective review of Nocardia bacteremia was performed using hospital microbiology records from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2017. A systematic literature review was also performed to identify cases of Nocardia bacteremia described in the NCBI PubMed database in English between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2018. RESULTS: Four new cases of Nocardia bacteremia are described. The systematic review identified 134 cases with sufficient information available for analysis. Of the total 138 cases, the median age was 58 years (interquartile range (IQR) 44-69 years) and 70% were male. Eighty-one percent were immunocompromised (corticosteroid use (49%), hematological malignancy (20%), solid organ transplant (20%), solid organ malignancy (19%), and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (15%)) and 29% had endovascular devices. Pulmonary infection was the most common concurrent site of clinical disease (67%). The median incubation time to the detection of Nocardia bacteremia was 4 days (IQR 3-6 days). Blood cultures were the only positive microbiological specimen in 38% of cases. The median total duration of treatment was 75 days (IQR 25-182 days). Thirty-day all-cause mortality was 28% and overall all-cause mortality was 40%. CONCLUSIONS: Nocardia bacteremia is most frequently identified in immunocompromised patients and those with intravascular devices. Although rare, it represents a serious infection with high associated overall mortality.
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