Effects of an anti-IGF-1 receptor monoclonal antibody on laminitis induced by prolonged hyperinsulinaemia in Standardbred horses
AuthorRahnama, S; Vathsangam, N; Spence, R; Medina-Torres, CE; Pollitt, CC; de Laat, MA; Bailey, SR; Sillence, MN
Source TitlePLoS One
PublisherPUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE
University of Melbourne Author/sBailey, Simon
Document TypeJournal Article
CitationsRahnama, S., Vathsangam, N., Spence, R., Medina-Torres, C. E., Pollitt, C. C., de Laat, M. A., Bailey, S. R. & Sillence, M. N. (2020). Effects of an anti-IGF-1 receptor monoclonal antibody on laminitis induced by prolonged hyperinsulinaemia in Standardbred horses. PLOS ONE, 15 (9), https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0239261.
Access StatusOpen Access
Currently, there are no registered veterinary drugs for the treatment of endocrinopathic equine laminitis, and although this form of the disease is known to be caused by prolonged hyperinsulinaemia, the mechanism of insulin toxicity is unclear. One possibility is that high concentrations of insulin activate IGF-1 receptors (IGF-1R) in lamellar tissue, leading to uncontrolled cell proliferation and epidermal lamellar dysregulation. An equinized version of a human anti-IGF-1R therapeutic monoclonal antibody (mAb11) was generated to test this theory, using a modification of the prolonged euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp technique. Healthy Standardbred horses were infused for 48 h with 0.9% saline (negative-control, n = 6), a combination of insulin (4.5 mIU/kgBW/min) and a variable infusion of 50% glucose to maintain euglycaemia (positive-control, n = 6), or insulin and glucose, preceded by a low dose of mAb11 (20 mg), designed to treat one foot only and delivered by retrograde infusion into one forelimb (mAb-treated, n = 7). Maximum insulin concentrations were 502 ± 54.4 and 435 ± 30.4 μIU/mL in the positive-control and mAb11-treated groups, respectively (P = 0.33). While the control group remained healthy, all the insulin-treated horses developed laminitis within 30 h, as judged by clinical examination, foot radiographs and histological analysis. Some effects of insulin were not attenuated by the antibody, however, relative to the positive-control group, horses treated with mAb11 showed less sinking of the distal phalanx (P < 0.05) and milder histological changes, with markedly less elongation at the tips of the secondary epidermal lamellae (P < 0.05). These differences were apparent in both front feet and were statistically significant when the values for both feet were combined. The results confirm that IGF-1R may have a role in insulin-induced laminitis and suggest that mAb11 warrants further research as a potential agent to prevent or treat the disease.
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