Systematic Review of Ticks and Tick-Borne Pathogens of Small Ruminants in Pakistan
AuthorGhafar, A; Abbas, T; Rehman, A; Sandhu, Z-U-D; Cabezas-Cruz, A; Jabbar, A
Document TypeJournal Article
CitationsGhafar, A., Abbas, T., Rehman, A., Sandhu, Z. -U. -D., Cabezas-Cruz, A. & Jabbar, A. (2020). Systematic Review of Ticks and Tick-Borne Pathogens of Small Ruminants in Pakistan. Pathogens, 9 (11), https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9110937.
Access StatusOpen Access
Open Access at PMChttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7696454
Ticks and tick-borne diseases (TTBDis) are a major constraint to the health and production of small ruminants in Pakistan. Despite being the subject of intermittent studies over the past few decades, comprehensive information on the epidemiology and control of TTBDis is lacking. Herein, we have systematically reviewed the current knowledge on TTBDis of small ruminants in Pakistan. Critical appraisal of the selected 71 articles published between 1947 to 2020 revealed that morphological examination had been the most widely used method for the identification of TTBDis in Pakistan. Tick fauna comprise at least 40 species, mainly belonging to Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma and Rhipicephalus. The prevalence of ticks is the highest in summer (June–September) and it is also higher in goats than sheep. Anaplasma, Babesia and Theileria spp. are the major tick-borne pathogens (TBPs), and their prevalence is usually higher in sheep than goats. Spatio-temporal distribution, genetic diversity and control of ticks and TBPs of small ruminants as well as the competence of tick vectors for various TBPs remain to be explored. Therefore, coordinated and focused investigations are required to fill knowledge gaps in these areas to maximise the health, production and welfare of small ruminants and minimise economic losses associated with TTBDis in Pakistan
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