Blackout in the powerhouse: clinical phenotypes associated with defects in the assembly of OXPHOS complexes and the mitoribosome
AuthorHock, DH; Robinson, DRL; Stroud, DA
Source TitleBiochemical Journal
PublisherPORTLAND PRESS LTD
AffiliationBiochemistry and Molecular Biology
Document TypeJournal Article
CitationsHock, D. H., Robinson, D. R. L. & Stroud, D. A. (2020). Blackout in the powerhouse: clinical phenotypes associated with defects in the assembly of OXPHOS complexes and the mitoribosome. BIOCHEMICAL JOURNAL, 477 (21), pp.4085-4132. https://doi.org/10.1042/BCJ20190767.
Access StatusOpen Access
Mitochondria produce the bulk of the energy used by almost all eukaryotic cells through oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) which occurs on the four complexes of the respiratory chain and the F1-F0 ATPase. Mitochondrial diseases are a heterogenous group of conditions affecting OXPHOS, either directly through mutation of genes encoding subunits of OXPHOS complexes, or indirectly through mutations in genes encoding proteins supporting this process. These include proteins that promote assembly of the OXPHOS complexes, the post-translational modification of subunits, insertion of cofactors or indeed subunit synthesis. The latter is important for all 13 of the proteins encoded by human mitochondrial DNA, which are synthesised on mitochondrial ribosomes. Together the five OXPHOS complexes and the mitochondrial ribosome are comprised of more than 160 subunits and many more proteins support their biogenesis. Mutations in both nuclear and mitochondrial genes encoding these proteins have been reported to cause mitochondrial disease, many leading to defective complex assembly with the severity of the assembly defect reflecting the severity of the disease. This review aims to act as an interface between the clinical and basic research underpinning our knowledge of OXPHOS complex and ribosome assembly, and the dysfunction of this process in mitochondrial disease.
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