A retrospective analysis of the care cascades for non-communicable disease and mental health among people living with HIV at a tertiary-care centre in Malaysia: opportunities to identify gaps and optimize care
AuthorLi, CM; Ying, FJ; Raj, D; Li, WP; Kukreja, A; Omar, SFS; Kamarulzaman, A; Rajasuriar, R
Source TitleJournal of the International AIDS Society
PublisherJOHN WILEY & SONS LTD
University of Melbourne Author/sRajasuriar, Reena
Document TypeJournal Article
CitationsLi, C. M., Ying, F. J., Raj, D., Li, W. P., Kukreja, A., Omar, S. F. S., Kamarulzaman, A. & Rajasuriar, R. (2020). A retrospective analysis of the care cascades for non-communicable disease and mental health among people living with HIV at a tertiary-care centre in Malaysia: opportunities to identify gaps and optimize care. JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL AIDS SOCIETY, 23 (11), https://doi.org/10.1002/jia2.25638.
Access StatusOpen Access
Open Access at PMChttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7673263
INTRODUCTION: The rapidly growing epidemic of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) including mental health among aging people living with HIV (PLWH) has put a significant strain on the provision of health services in many HIV clinics globally. We constructed care cascades for specific NCDs and mental health among PLWH attending our centre to identify potential areas for programmatic improvement. METHODS: This was a follow-up study of participants recruited in the Malaysian HIV & Aging study (MHIVA) from 2014 to 2016 at the University Malaya Medical Centre (n = 336). PLWH on suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) for a minimum of 12 months were invited to participate. At study entry, all participants underwent screening for diabetes (DM), hypertension (HTN) and dyslipidaemia; and completed assessments using the depression, anxiety and stress scale (DASS-21). Screening results were recorded in medical charts and clinical management provided as per standard of care. A subsequent review of medical records was performed at 24 months following study completion among participants who remained on active follow-up. Treatment pathways for NCD treatment and psychiatric referrals were assessed based on local practice guidelines to construct the care cascade. RESULTS: A total of 329 participants (median age = 43 years, 83% male, 100% on ART) completed follow-up at 24 months. The prevalence of diabetes was 13%, dyslipidaemia 88% and hypertension 44%, whereas 23% presented with severe/extremely severe symptoms of depression, anxiety and/or stress. More than 50% of participants with dyslipidaemia and hypertension were not diagnosed until study screening, whereas over 80% with prevalent psychiatric symptoms were not previously recognized clinically. Suboptimal control of fasting lipids, sugar and blood pressure were found in the majority of participants despite optimal HIV treatment outcomes maintained over this same period. Only 32% of participants with severe/extremely severe mental health symptoms received psychiatric referrals and 83% of these attended their psychiatry clinic appointments. CONCLUSIONS: Systematic screening must be introduced to identify NCDs and mental health issues among PLWH followed by proper linkage and referrals for management of screen-positive cases. Assessment of factors associated with attrition at each step of the care cascade is critically needed to improve health outcomes in our aging patients.
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