Geographic Analysis of Motor Neuron Disease Mortality and Heavy Metals Released to Rivers in Spain
AuthorSanchez-Diaz, G; Escobar, F; Badland, H; Arias-Merino, G; Posada de la Paz, M; Alonso-Ferreira, V
Source TitleInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
University of Melbourne Author/sBadland, Hannah
Document TypeJournal Article
CitationsSanchez-Diaz, G., Escobar, F., Badland, H., Arias-Merino, G., Posada de la Paz, M. & Alonso-Ferreira, V. (2018). Geographic Analysis of Motor Neuron Disease Mortality and Heavy Metals Released to Rivers in Spain. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH, 15 (11), https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112522.
Access StatusOpen Access
The etiology of motor neuron disease (MND) is still unknown. The aims of this study were to: (1) analyze MND mortality at a fine-grained level; and (2) explore associations of MND and heavy metals released into Spanish river basins. MND deaths were extracted from the Spanish nationwide mortality registry (2007⁻2016). Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for MND were estimated at a municipal level. Sites that emitted quantities of heavy metals above the regulatory thresholds were obtained from the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register database (2007⁻2015). The relative risks for non-exposed and exposed municipalities (considering a downstream 20 km river section) by type of heavy metal were analyzed using a log-linear model. SMRs were significantly higher in central and northern municipalities. SMRs were 1.14 (1.10⁻1.17) higher in areas exposed to heavy metals than in non-exposed areas: 0.95 (0.92⁻0.96). Considering the different metals, we found the following increased MND death risks in exposed areas: 20.9% higher risk for lead, 20.0% for zinc, 16.7% for arsenic, 15.7% for chromium, 15.4% for cadmium, 12.7% for copper, and 12.4% for mercury. This study provides associations between MND death risk and heavy metals in exposed municipalities. Further studies investigating heavy metal exposure are needed to progress in MND understanding.
- Click on "Export Reference in RIS Format" and choose "open with... Endnote".
- Click on "Export Reference in RIS Format". Login to Refworks, go to References => Import References