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dc.contributor.authorSanchez-Diaz, G
dc.contributor.authorEscobar, F
dc.contributor.authorBadland, H
dc.contributor.authorArias-Merino, G
dc.contributor.authorPosada de la Paz, M
dc.contributor.authorAlonso-Ferreira, V
dc.date.accessioned2020-12-09T23:35:27Z
dc.date.available2020-12-09T23:35:27Z
dc.date.issued2018-11-01
dc.identifierpii: ijerph15112522
dc.identifier.citationSanchez-Diaz, G., Escobar, F., Badland, H., Arias-Merino, G., Posada de la Paz, M. & Alonso-Ferreira, V. (2018). Geographic Analysis of Motor Neuron Disease Mortality and Heavy Metals Released to Rivers in Spain. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH, 15 (11), https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112522.
dc.identifier.issn1660-4601
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11343/253269
dc.description.abstractThe etiology of motor neuron disease (MND) is still unknown. The aims of this study were to: (1) analyze MND mortality at a fine-grained level; and (2) explore associations of MND and heavy metals released into Spanish river basins. MND deaths were extracted from the Spanish nationwide mortality registry (2007⁻2016). Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for MND were estimated at a municipal level. Sites that emitted quantities of heavy metals above the regulatory thresholds were obtained from the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register database (2007⁻2015). The relative risks for non-exposed and exposed municipalities (considering a downstream 20 km river section) by type of heavy metal were analyzed using a log-linear model. SMRs were significantly higher in central and northern municipalities. SMRs were 1.14 (1.10⁻1.17) higher in areas exposed to heavy metals than in non-exposed areas: 0.95 (0.92⁻0.96). Considering the different metals, we found the following increased MND death risks in exposed areas: 20.9% higher risk for lead, 20.0% for zinc, 16.7% for arsenic, 15.7% for chromium, 15.4% for cadmium, 12.7% for copper, and 12.4% for mercury. This study provides associations between MND death risk and heavy metals in exposed municipalities. Further studies investigating heavy metal exposure are needed to progress in MND understanding.
dc.languageEnglish
dc.publisherMDPI
dc.titleGeographic Analysis of Motor Neuron Disease Mortality and Heavy Metals Released to Rivers in Spain
dc.typeJournal Article
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/ijerph15112522
melbourne.affiliation.departmentUniversity General
melbourne.source.titleInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
melbourne.source.volume15
melbourne.source.issue11
dc.rights.licenseCC BY
melbourne.elementsid1355954
melbourne.contributor.authorBadland, Hannah
dc.identifier.eissn1660-4601
melbourne.accessrightsOpen Access


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