An audit of the dietary intake of Australian children with type 1 diabetes
AuthorGilbertson, HR; Reed, K; Clark, S; Francis, KL; Cameron, FJ
Source TitleNutrition and Diabetes
PublisherNATURE PUBLISHING GROUP
Melbourne Graduate School of Education
Document TypeJournal Article
CitationsGilbertson, H. R., Reed, K., Clark, S., Francis, K. L. & Cameron, F. J. (2018). An audit of the dietary intake of Australian children with type 1 diabetes. NUTRITION & DIABETES, 8 (1), https://doi.org/10.1038/s41387-018-0021-5.
Access StatusOpen Access
To understand what children with type 1 diabetes in a representative tertiary hospital clinic are eating compared to their peers and explore dietary intake impact on HbA1c outcome. An open cross-sectional dietary audit of children and adolescents with diabetes aged 2-17 years attending the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne was conducted using an age-appropriate validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. Total energy, macronutrient intake and diet quality were calculated and compared to dietary advice provided and national intake data. Body weight, and dietary intake influences on glycaemic control were investigated. Overall, 785 patients were recruited, from which 429 dietary surveys were completed. Dietary intakes were overall nutritionally adequate with macronutrient distribution (% total energy intake) being lower carbohydrate (48.6%), higher total sugars (22.4%), fat (32.9%), saturated fat (14.9%) and protein intake (19.1%) than recommendations, but similar to their peers. Energy intakes were excessive compared to their peers in the 4-13 year olds. Rates of overweight (30%) were significantly higher than national data (18%). Overall, 43% achieved optimal glycaemic control (HbA1c < 7.5%; <58 mmol/mol). HbA1c prediction via linear regression indicated that the following factors were associated with lower HbA1c values: being male, on pump regimen, lower rates of insulin per kg, shorter duration of disease. This audit has identified areas requiring targeted education/support to improve health outcomes including dietary adherence, rates of overweight/obesity, appropriate energy intakes and optimal glycaemic targets. Furthermore, it provides baseline data to evaluate efficacy of future interventions.
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