MYR1-Dependent Effectors Are the Major Drivers of a Host Cell's Early Response to Toxoplasma, Including Counteracting MYR1-Independent Effects
AuthorNaor, A; Panas, MW; Marino, N; Coffey, MJ; Tonkin, CJ; Boothroyd, JC
PublisherAMER SOC MICROBIOLOGY
University of Melbourne Author/sTonkin, Christopher
AffiliationMedical Biology (W.E.H.I.)
Document TypeJournal Article
CitationsNaor, A., Panas, M. W., Marino, N., Coffey, M. J., Tonkin, C. J. & Boothroyd, J. C. (2018). MYR1-Dependent Effectors Are the Major Drivers of a Host Cell's Early Response to Toxoplasma, Including Counteracting MYR1-Independent Effects. MBIO, 9 (2), https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02401-17.
Access StatusOpen Access
The obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii controls its host cell from within the parasitophorous vacuole (PV) by using a number of diverse effector proteins, a subset of which require the aspartyl protease 5 enzyme (ASP5) and/or the recently discovered MYR1 protein to cross the PV membrane. To examine the impact these effectors have in the context of the entirety of the host response to Toxoplasma, we used RNA-Seq to analyze the transcriptome expression profiles of human foreskin fibroblasts infected with wild-type RH (RH-WT), RHΔmyr1, and RHΔasp5 tachyzoites. Interestingly, the majority of the differentially regulated genes responding to Toxoplasma infection are MYR1 dependent. A subset of MYR1 responses were ASP5 independent, and MYR1 function did not require ASP5 cleavage, suggesting the export of some effectors requires only MYR1. Gene set enrichment analysis of MYR1-dependent host responses suggests an upregulation of E2F transcription factors and the cell cycle and a downregulation related to interferon signaling, among numerous others. Most surprisingly, "hidden" responses arising in RHΔmyr1- but not RH-WT-infected host cells indicate counterbalancing actions of MYR1-dependent and -independent activities. The host genes and gene sets revealed here to be MYR1 dependent provide new insight into the parasite's ability to co-opt host cell functions.IMPORTANCEToxoplasma gondii is unique in its ability to successfully invade and replicate in a broad range of host species and cells within those hosts. The complex interplay of effector proteins exported by Toxoplasma is key to its success in co-opting the host cell to create a favorable replicative niche. Here we show that a majority of the transcriptomic effects in tachyzoite-infected cells depend on the activity of a novel translocation system involving MYR1 and that the effectors delivered by this system are part of an intricate interplay of activators and suppressors. Removal of all MYR1-dependent effectors reveals previously unknown activities that are masked or hidden by the action of these proteins.
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