Phospholipase A2 activity during the replication cycle of the flavivirus West Nile virus
AuthorLiebscher, S; Ambrose, RL; Aktepe, TE; Mikulasova, A; Prier, JE; Gillespie, LK; Lopez-Denman, AJ; Rupasinghe, TWT; Tull, D; McConville, MJ; ...
Source TitlePLoS Pathogens
PublisherPUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE
University of Melbourne Author/sMackenzie, Jason; Rupasinghe, Thusitha; Tull, Dedreia; McConville, Malcolm; Gillespie, Leah; Prier, Julia; Lopez-Denman, Adam; Aktepe, Turgut Esad; Liebscher, Susann; AMBROSE, REBECCA
AffiliationBiochemistry and Molecular Biology
School of BioSciences
Microbiology and Immunology
Document TypeJournal Article
CitationsLiebscher, S., Ambrose, R. L., Aktepe, T. E., Mikulasova, A., Prier, J. E., Gillespie, L. K., Lopez-Denman, A. J., Rupasinghe, T. W. T., Tull, D., McConville, M. J. & Mackenzie, J. M. (2018). Phospholipase A2 activity during the replication cycle of the flavivirus West Nile virus. PLOS PATHOGENS, 14 (4), https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007029.
Access StatusOpen Access
Positive-sense RNA virus intracellular replication is intimately associated with membrane platforms that are derived from host organelles and comprised of distinct lipid composition. For flaviviruses, such as West Nile virus strain Kunjin virus (WNVKUN) we have observed that these membrane platforms are derived from the endoplasmic reticulum and are rich in (at least) cholesterol. To extend these studies and identify the cellular lipids critical for WNVKUN replication we utilized a whole cell lipidomics approach and revealed an elevation in phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity to produce lyso-phosphatidylcholine (lyso-PChol). We observed that the PLA2 enzyme family is activated in WNVKUN-infected cells and the generated lyso-PChol lipid moieties are sequestered to the subcellular sites of viral replication. The requirement for lyso-PChol was confirmed using chemical inhibition of PLA2, where WNVKUN replication and production of infectious virus was duly affected in the presence of the inhibitors. Importantly, we could rescue chemical-induced inhibition with the exogenous addition of lyso-PChol species. Additionally, electron microscopy results indicate that lyso-PChol appears to contribute to the formation of the WNVKUN membranous replication complex (RC); particularly affecting the morphology and membrane curvature of vesicles comprising the RC. These results extend our current understanding of how flaviviruses manipulate lipid homeostasis to favour their own intracellular replication.
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