Tumor Lysis Syndrome in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia with Novel Targeted Agents
AuthorCheson, BD; Enschede, SH; Cerri, E; Desai, M; Potluri, J; Lamanna, N; Tam, C
Source TitleThe Oncologist
University of Melbourne Author/sTam, Constantine
AffiliationMedicine and Radiology
Document TypeJournal Article
CitationsCheson, B. D., Enschede, S. H., Cerri, E., Desai, M., Potluri, J., Lamanna, N. & Tam, C. (2017). Tumor Lysis Syndrome in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia with Novel Targeted Agents. ONCOLOGIST, 22 (11), pp.1283-1291. https://doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2017-0055.
Access StatusOpen Access
Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication associated with the treatment of some cancers. If left untreated, TLS may result in acute renal failure, cardiac dysrhythmia, neurologic complications, seizures, or death. Tumor lysis syndrome is most commonly observed in patients with hematologic malignancies with a high proliferation rate undergoing treatment with very effective therapies. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), historically, TLS has been observed less often, owing to a low proliferation rate and slow response to chemotherapy. New targeted therapies have recently been approved in the treatment of CLL, including the oral kinase inhibitors, idelalisib and ibrutinib, and the B-cell lymphoma-2 protein inhibitor, venetoclax. Several others are also under development, and combination strategies of these agents are being explored. This review examines the diagnosis, prevention, and management of TLS and summarizes the TLS experience in CLL clinical trials with newer targeted agents. Overall, the risk of TLS is small, but the consequences may be fatal; therefore, patients should be monitored carefully. Therapies capable of eliciting rapid response and combination regimens are increasingly being evaluated for treatment of CLL, which may pose a higher risk of TLS. For optimal management, patients at risk for TLS require prophylaxis and close monitoring with appropriate tests and appropriate management to correct laboratory abnormalities, which allows for safe and effective disease control. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a potentially fatal condition observed with hematologic malignancies, caused by release of cellular components in the bloodstream from rapidly dying tumor cells. The frequency and severity of TLS is partly dependent upon the biology of the disease and type of therapy administered. Novel targeted agents highly effective at inducing rapid cell death in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) may pose a risk for TLS in patients with tumors characterized by rapid growth, high tumor burden, and/or high sensitivity to treatment. In this review, prevention strategies and management of patients with CLL who develop TLS are described.
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