Induction of microglial toll-like receptor 4 by prothrombin kringle-2: a potential pathogenic mechanism in Parkinson's disease
AuthorShin, W-H; Jeon, M-T; Leem, E; Won, S-Y; Jeong, KH; Park, S-J; McLean, C; Lee, SJ; Jin, BK; Jung, UJ; ...
Source TitleScientific Reports
PublisherNATURE PUBLISHING GROUP
University of Melbourne Author/sMcLean, Catriona
AffiliationFlorey Department of Neuroscience and Mental Health
Document TypeJournal Article
CitationsShin, W. -H., Jeon, M. -T., Leem, E., Won, S. -Y., Jeong, K. H., Park, S. -J., McLean, C., Lee, S. J., Jin, B. K., Jung, U. J. & Kim, S. R. (2015). Induction of microglial toll-like receptor 4 by prothrombin kringle-2: a potential pathogenic mechanism in Parkinson's disease. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 5 (1), https://doi.org/10.1038/srep14764.
Access StatusOpen Access
Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation may play an important role in the initiation and progression of dopaminergic (DA) neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD), and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is essential for the activation of microglia in the adult brain. However, it is still unclear whether patients with PD exhibit an increase in TLR4 expression in the brain, and whether there is a correlation between the levels of prothrombin kringle-2 (pKr-2) and microglial TLR4. In the present study, we first observed that the levels of pKr-2 and microglial TLR4 were increased in the substantia nigra (SN) of patients with PD. In rat and mouse brains, intranigral injection of pKr-2, which is not directly toxic to neurons, led to the disruption of nigrostriatal DA projections. Moreover, microglial TLR4 was upregulated in the rat SN and in cultures of the BV-2 microglial cell line after pKr-2 treatment. In TLR4-deficient mice, pKr-2-induced microglial activation was suppressed compared with wild-type mice, resulting in attenuated neurotoxicity. Therefore, our results suggest that pKr-2 may be a pathogenic factor in PD, and that the inhibition of pKr-2-induced microglial TLR4 may be protective against degeneration of the nigrostriatal DA system in vivo.
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