Nursing - Research Publications

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    Mapping Men's Mental Health Help-Seeking After an Intimate Partner Relationship Break-Up
    Oliffe, JL ; Kelly, MT ; Montaner, GG ; Seidler, ZE ; Kealy, D ; Ogrodniczuk, JS ; Rice, SM (SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2022-06-25)
    Deleterious effects of separation and divorce on men's mental health are well-documented; however, little is known about their help-seeking when adjusting to these all-too-common life transitions. Employing interpretive descriptive methods, interviews with 47 men exploring their mental health help-seeking after a relationship break-up were analyzed in deriving three themes: (1) Solitary work and tapping established connections, (2) Reaching out to make new connections, and (3) Engaging professional mental health care. Men relying on solitary work and established connections accessed relationship-focused self-help books, online resources, and confided in friends and/or family. Some participants supplemented solitary work by reaching out to make new connections including peer-based men's groups and education and social activities. Comprising first-time, returning, and continuing users, many men responded to relationship break-up crises by engaging professional mental health care. The findings challenge longstanding commentaries that men actively avoid mental health promotion by illuminating wide-ranging help resources.
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    Exploring Teacher and Parent Perspectives on School-Based Masculinities in Relation to Mental Health Promotion
    Wilson, MJ ; Gwyther, K ; Simmons, M ; Swann, R ; Oliffe, JL ; Casey, K ; Rice, SM (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2022-06-13)
    The capacity for boys' and young men's mental health promotion to act via shifting masculine norms that are linked to poor mental health outcomes, highlights the need to improve the extent to which school-based programs can promote mental health through leveraging more positive embodiments of masculinity. To-date, the perspectives of parents and teachers on such processes are understudied. This qualitative study presents teacher and parent views regarding adolescent masculinities and avenues for school-based developmental programming for boys and young men. In this study, 16 individual qualitative interviews were undertaken with 10 parents (six females, four males), and six teachers (three females, three males), recruited from an independent all-boys' grammar school in Melbourne, Australia. Thematic analysis of parents' and teachers' perspectives indicated their perception of the role of context-dependent "public" and "private" masculinities, the influence of Australian masculinity norms, and the role of private boys' school cultures in the development of adolescent masculinities. Additionally, strategies for development encompassed participants' appetite for boys' exposure to positive role models, in addition to consistent and relevant developmental programming to support positive masculinity development. Findings have implications for efforts to support prosocial masculine identity development via school-based initiatives, as an avenue to promoting mental health of boys and young men.
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    Sexual abuse and mental ill health in boys and men: what we do and don't know
    Rice, SM ; Easton, SD ; Seidler, ZE ; Oliffe, JL (CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2022-06-09)
    The spectrum of adverse mental health trajectories caused by sexual abuse, broadly defined as exposure to rape and unwanted physical sexual contact, is well-known. Few studies have systematically appraised the epidemiology and impact of sexual abuse among boys and men. New meta-analytic insights (k = 44; n = 45 172) reported by Zarchev and colleagues challenge assumptions that men experiencing mental ill health rarely report sexual abuse exposure. Adult-onset sexual abuse rates of 1-7% are observed in the general population, but for men experiencing mental ill health, adult lifetime prevalence was 14.1% (95% CI 7.3-22.4%), with past-year exposure 5.3% (95% CI 1.6-12.8%). We note that these rates are certainly underestimates, as childhood sexual abuse exposures were excluded. Boys and men with a sexual abuse history experience substantial disclosure and treatment barriers. We draw attention to population health gains that could be achieved via implementation of gender-sensitive assessment and intervention approaches for this at-risk population.
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    Including migrant oncology patients in research: A multisite pilot randomised controlled trial testing consultation audio-recordings and question prompt lists.
    Hyatt, A ; Lipson-Smith, R ; Gough, K ; Butow, P ; Jefford, M ; Hack, TF ; Hale, S ; Zucchi, E ; White, S ; Ozolins, U ; Schofield, P (Elsevier BV, 2022-08)
    Background: Oncology patients who are migrants or refugees face worse outcomes due to language and communication barriers impacting care. Interventions such as consultation audio-recordings and question prompt lists may prove beneficial in mediating communication challenges. However, designing robust research inclusive of patients who do not speak English is challenging. This study therefore aimed to: a) pilot test and assess the appropriateness of the proposed research design and methods for engaging migrant populations, and b) determine whether a multi-site RCT efficacy assessment of the communication intervention utilising these methods is feasible. Methods: This study is a mixed-methods parallel-group, randomised controlled feasibility pilot trial. Feasibility outcomes comprised assessment of: i) screening and recruitment processes, ii) design and procedures, and iii) research time and costing. The communication intervention comprised audio-recordings of a key medical consultation with an interpreter, and question prompt lists and cancer information translated into Arabic, Greek, Traditional, and Simplified Chinese. Results: Assessment of feasibility parameters revealed that despite barriers, methods utilised in this study supported the inclusion of migrant oncology patients in research. A future multi-site RCT efficacy assessment of the INFORM communication intervention using these methods is feasible if recommendations to strengthen screening and recruitment are adopted. Importantly, hiring of bilingual research assistants, and engagement with community and consumer advocates is essential. Early involvement of clinical and interpreting staff as key stakeholders is likewise recommended. Conclusion: Results from this feasibility RCT help us better understand and overcome the challenges and misconceptions about including migrant patients in clinical research.
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    "Appreciate the Little Things": A Qualitative Survey of Men's Coping Strategies and Mental Health Impacts During the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Wilson, MJ ; Seidler, ZE ; Oliffe, JL ; Toogood, N ; Kealy, D ; Ogrodniczuk, JS ; Walther, A ; Rice, SM (SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2022-05-01)
    The COVID-19 pandemic has presented a suite of circumstances that will simultaneously affect mental health and mobilize coping strategies in response. Building on a lack of research specifically exploring men's mental health impacts during the COVID-19 pandemic, this study presents the results of a qualitative survey exploring men's self-reported aspects of the pandemic giving rise to mental health challenges, alongside their diverse coping strategies applied during this time. The sample comprised 555 men from North America (age M = 38.8 years; SD = 13.5 years), who participated via an online survey with two open-ended qualitative questions assessing, respectively, the aspects of the pandemic affecting their mental health, and the strategies used to manage these challenges. Free-text responses were coded using inductive content analysis. Results pertaining to the mental health impacts of COVID-19 were categorized into two overarching themes: far-reaching ramifications of COVID-19 encompassing consequences for lifestyle, work, and functioning, alongside novel anxieties related to health risks and daily uncertainty. In addition, coping strategies reported were categorized into two broad themes: efforts to avoid, dull or distract oneself from distress, alongside adapting and doing things differently, which encompassed largely approach-oriented efforts to flexibly ameliorate distress. Results signal the far-reaching impacts of COVID-19, alongside profound flexibility and diverse enactments of resilience among men in adapting to unprecedented challenges. Findings have implications for mental health promotion that should aim to leverage men's adaptive coping to encourage opportunities for social connectedness in response to the mental health impacts of the various psychosocial challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic.
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    Do palliative care patients and relatives think it would be acceptable to use Bispectral index (BIS) technology to monitor palliative care patients' levels of consciousness? A qualitative exploration with interviews and focus groups for the I-CAN-CARE research programme.
    Krooupa, A-M ; Stone, P ; McKeever, S ; Seddon, K ; Davis, S ; Sampson, EL ; Tookman, A ; Martin, J ; Nambisan, V ; Vivat, B (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-05-24)
    BACKGROUND: Bispectral index (BIS) monitoring uses electroencephalographic data as an indicator of patients' consciousness level. This technology might be a useful adjunct to clinical observation when titrating sedative medications for palliative care patients. However, the use of BIS in palliative care generally, and in the UK in particular, is under-researched. A key area is this technology's acceptability for palliative care service users. Ahead of trialling BIS in practice, and in order to ascertain whether such a trial would be reasonable, we conducted a study to explore UK palliative care patients' and relatives' perceptions of the technology, including whether they thought its use in palliative care practice would be acceptable. METHODS: A qualitative exploration was undertaken. Participants were recruited through a UK hospice. Focus groups and semi-structured interviews were conducted with separate groups of palliative care patients, relatives of current patients, and bereaved relatives. We explored their views on acceptability of using BIS with palliative care patients, and analysed their responses following the five key stages of the Framework method. RESULTS: We recruited 25 participants. There were ten current hospice patients in three focus groups, four relatives of current patients in one focus group and one individual interview, and eleven bereaved relatives in three focus groups and two individual interviews. Our study participants considered BIS acceptable for monitoring palliative care patients' consciousness levels, and that it might be of use in end-of-life care, provided that it was additional to (rather than a replacement of) usual care, and patients and/or family members were involved in decisions about its use. Participants also noted that BIS, while possibly obtrusive, is not invasive, with some seeing it as equivalent to wearable technological devices such as activity watches. CONCLUSIONS: Participants considered BIS technology might be of benefit to palliative care as a non-intrusive means of assisting clinical assessment and decision-making at the end of life, and concluded that it would therefore be acceptable to trial the technology with patients.
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    Reframing palliative care to improve the quality of life of people diagnosed with a serious illness
    Hudson, P ; Collins, A ; Boughey, M ; Philip, J (WILEY, 2021-10-22)
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    Conventional versus hypofractionated high-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer: 5-year outcomes of the randomised, non-inferiority, phase 3 CHHiP trial
    Dearnaley, D ; Syndikus, I ; Mossop, H ; Khoo, V ; Birtle, A ; Bloomfield, D ; Graham, J ; Kirkbride, P ; Logue, J ; Malik, Z ; Money-Kyrle, J ; O'Sullivan, JM ; Panades, M ; Parker, C ; Patterson, H ; Scrase, C ; Staffurth, J ; Stockdale, A ; Tremlett, J ; Bidmead, M ; Mayles, H ; Naismith, O ; South, C ; Gao, A ; Cruickshank, C ; Hassan, S ; Pugh, J ; Griffin, C ; Hall, E (ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2016-08-01)
    BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer might have high radiation-fraction sensitivity that would give a therapeutic advantage to hypofractionated treatment. We present a pre-planned analysis of the efficacy and side-effects of a randomised trial comparing conventional and hypofractionated radiotherapy after 5 years follow-up. METHODS: CHHiP is a randomised, phase 3, non-inferiority trial that recruited men with localised prostate cancer (pT1b-T3aN0M0). Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to conventional (74 Gy delivered in 37 fractions over 7·4 weeks) or one of two hypofractionated schedules (60 Gy in 20 fractions over 4 weeks or 57 Gy in 19 fractions over 3·8 weeks) all delivered with intensity-modulated techniques. Most patients were given radiotherapy with 3-6 months of neoadjuvant and concurrent androgen suppression. Randomisation was by computer-generated random permuted blocks, stratified by National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) risk group and radiotherapy treatment centre, and treatment allocation was not masked. The primary endpoint was time to biochemical or clinical failure; the critical hazard ratio (HR) for non-inferiority was 1·208. Analysis was by intention to treat. Long-term follow-up continues. The CHHiP trial is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number ISRCTN97182923. FINDINGS: Between Oct 18, 2002, and June 17, 2011, 3216 men were enrolled from 71 centres and randomly assigned (74 Gy group, 1065 patients; 60 Gy group, 1074 patients; 57 Gy group, 1077 patients). Median follow-up was 62·4 months (IQR 53·9-77·0). The proportion of patients who were biochemical or clinical failure free at 5 years was 88·3% (95% CI 86·0-90·2) in the 74 Gy group, 90·6% (88·5-92·3) in the 60 Gy group, and 85·9% (83·4-88·0) in the 57 Gy group. 60 Gy was non-inferior to 74 Gy (HR 0·84 [90% CI 0·68-1·03], pNI=0·0018) but non-inferiority could not be claimed for 57 Gy compared with 74 Gy (HR 1·20 [0·99-1·46], pNI=0·48). Long-term side-effects were similar in the hypofractionated groups compared with the conventional group. There were no significant differences in either the proportion or cumulative incidence of side-effects 5 years after treatment using three clinician-reported as well as patient-reported outcome measures. The estimated cumulative 5 year incidence of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade 2 or worse bowel and bladder adverse events was 13·7% (111 events) and 9·1% (66 events) in the 74 Gy group, 11·9% (105 events) and 11·7% (88 events) in the 60 Gy group, 11·3% (95 events) and 6·6% (57 events) in the 57 Gy group, respectively. No treatment-related deaths were reported. INTERPRETATION: Hypofractionated radiotherapy using 60 Gy in 20 fractions is non-inferior to conventional fractionation using 74 Gy in 37 fractions and is recommended as a new standard of care for external-beam radiotherapy of localised prostate cancer. FUNDING: Cancer Research UK, Department of Health, and the National Institute for Health Research Cancer Research Network.
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    Hypofractionated radiotherapy versus conventionally fractionated radiotherapy for patients with intermediate-risk localised prostate cancer: 2-year patient-reported outcomes of the randomised, non-inferiority, phase 3 CHHiP trial
    Wilkins, A ; Mossop, H ; Syndikus, I ; Khoo, V ; Bloomfield, D ; Parker, C ; Logue, J ; Scrase, C ; Patterson, H ; Birtle, A ; Staffurth, J ; Malik, Z ; Panades, M ; Eswar, C ; Graham, J ; Russell, M ; Kirkbride, P ; O'Sullivan, JM ; Gao, A ; Cruickshank, C ; Griffin, C ; Dearnaley, D ; Hall, E (ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2015-12-01)
    BACKGROUND: Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) might detect more toxic effects of radiotherapy than do clinician-reported outcomes. We did a quality of life (QoL) substudy to assess PROs up to 24 months after conventionally fractionated or hypofractionated radiotherapy in the Conventional or Hypofractionated High Dose Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy in Prostate Cancer (CHHiP) trial. METHODS: The CHHiP trial is a randomised, non-inferiority phase 3 trial done in 71 centres, of which 57 UK hospitals took part in the QoL substudy. Men with localised prostate cancer who were undergoing radiotherapy were eligible for trial entry if they had histologically confirmed T1b-T3aN0M0 prostate cancer, an estimated risk of seminal vesicle involvement less than 30%, prostate-specific antigen concentration less than 30 ng/mL, and a WHO performance status of 0 or 1. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive a standard fractionation schedule of 74 Gy in 37 fractions or one of two hypofractionated schedules: 60 Gy in 20 fractions or 57 Gy in 19 fractions. Randomisation was done with computer-generated permuted block sizes of six and nine, stratified by centre and National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) risk group. Treatment allocation was not masked. UCLA Prostate Cancer Index (UCLA-PCI), including Short Form (SF)-36 and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P), or Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) and SF-12 quality-of-life questionnaires were completed at baseline, pre-radiotherapy, 10 weeks post-radiotherapy, and 6, 12, 18, and 24 months post-radiotherapy. The CHHiP trial completed accrual on June 16, 2011, and the QoL substudy was closed to further recruitment on Nov 1, 2009. Analysis was on an intention-to-treat basis. The primary endpoint of the QoL substudy was overall bowel bother and comparisons between fractionation groups were done at 24 months post-radiotherapy. The CHHiP trial is registered with ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN97182923. FINDINGS: 2100 participants in the CHHiP trial consented to be included in the QoL substudy: 696 assigned to the 74 Gy schedule, 698 assigned to the 60 Gy schedule, and 706 assigned to the 57 Gy schedule. Of these individuals, 1659 (79%) provided data pre-radiotherapy and 1444 (69%) provided data at 24 months after radiotherapy. Median follow-up was 50·0 months (IQR 38·4-64·2) on April 9, 2014, which was the most recent follow-up measurement of all data collected before the QoL data were analysed in September, 2014. Comparison of 74 Gy in 37 fractions, 60 Gy in 20 fractions, and 57 Gy in 19 fractions groups at 2 years showed no overall bowel bother in 269 (66%), 266 (65%), and 282 (65%) men; very small bother in 92 (22%), 91 (22%), and 93 (21%) men; small bother in 26 (6%), 28 (7%), and 38 (9%) men; moderate bother in 19 (5%), 23 (6%), and 21 (5%) men, and severe bother in four (<1%), three (<1%) and three (<1%) men respectively (74 Gy vs 60 Gy, ptrend=0.64, 74 Gy vs 57 Gy, ptrend=0·59). We saw no differences between treatment groups in change of bowel bother score from baseline or pre-radiotherapy to 24 months. INTERPRETATION: The incidence of patient-reported bowel symptoms was low and similar between patients in the 74 Gy control group and the hypofractionated groups up to 24 months after radiotherapy. If efficacy outcomes from CHHiP show non-inferiority for hypofractionated treatments, these findings will add to the growing evidence for moderately hypofractionated radiotherapy schedules becoming the standard treatment for localised prostate cancer. FUNDING: Cancer Research UK, Department of Health, and the National Institute for Health Research Cancer Research Network.
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    Elevated Sound Levels in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: What Is Causing the Problem?
    Mayhew, KJ ; Lawrence, SL ; Squires, JE ; Harrison, D (Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health), 2022-04-21)
    BACKGROUND: Premature and sick neonates may require weeks of hospitalization in a noisy neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) environment with sound levels that may reach 120 decibels. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends a maximum sound level of 45 decibels. PURPOSE: To measure sound levels in a level III NICU and to describe contributing environmental factors. METHODS: Descriptive quantitative study. Sound levels were measured using a portable sound meter in an open-bay level III NICU. Contributing environmental factors were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: Mean sound levels for day, evening, and night shifts were 83.5, 83, and 80.9 decibels, respectively. Each period of time exceeded the recommended guidelines 90% of the time and was almost double the American Academy of Pediatrics' recommendation. Multiple linear regression findings demonstrated significant factors associated with elevated sound levels including number of neonates, number of people, number of alarms, acuity level, and shift type. Observational data explain 14.5% of elevated sound levels. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: An understanding of baseline sound levels and contributing environmental factors is the first step in developing strategies to mitigate excessive noise in the NICU. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH: Research should focus on effective and sustainable ways to reduce sound levels in the NICU, including inside the isolette, in order to provide an environment that is conducive to optimal growth and neurodevelopment for preterm and sick infants.