Nursing - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 103
A snapshot of clinical educational experiences for advanced practice nurses worldwide.
(Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health), 2020-09)
Using a convenience sampling, nurse educators representing 10 countries were surveyed to describe required clinical education for advanced practice beyond basic traditional nursing education. This article explores the many factors currently influencing the structure and diversity of these clinical experiences worldwide.
How to translate scientific knowledge into practice? Concepts, models and application
(ASSOC BRASILEIRA ENFERMAGEM, 2020-01-01)
OBJECTIVES: to present the concept of Knowledge Translation and Exchange as it has been used in the international literature and in Canada, particularly. Next, to describe a renowned conceptual model to guide its implementation, entitled Knowledge-to-Action Cycle. RESULTS: we described the use of the model in the context of the municipal primary health care system in southern Brazil for the implementation of pain management strategies during vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: in this theoretical reflection, we argue that in order to promote health equity and quality of care in the Unified Health System (Brazilian SUS) it is important to translate scientific knowledge to various practice settings and create opportunities for exchange with users of this knowledge, such as health professionals, managers, policy makers, patients, family members and other stakeholders.
Usability, acceptability, and feasibility of the Implementation of Infant Pain Practice Change (ImPaC) Resource
The Implementation of Infant Pain Practice (ImPaC) Resource is an eHealth tool designed to support infant pain practice change and ultimately enhance pain outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine users' perspectives on usability, acceptability, and feasibility of the ImPaC Resource. A descriptive prospective mixed-methods quality improvement study was conducted at a pediatric hospital in Canada. Individual “think aloud” interviews were conducted in a nonclinical environment (Phase A); “near live” testing was conducted while users interacted with the Resource in clinical setting (Phase B); individual “think-aloud” interviews were conducted in a nonclinical environment (Phase C). Outcomes included usability (System Usability Scale—SUS), acceptability (Acceptability E-Scale—AES), and feasibility. Interview transcripts were coded per a priori themes using deductive content analysis to create a structured categorization matrix. In Phase A, 10 clinicians interacted with the Resource in individual sessions. Median SUS score was 73.75 (range 52.5-92.5). In Phase B, four clinicians implemented the Resource in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) over 4 months. Median SUS score was 85 (82.5-92.5), and median AES score was 24 (21-24). In Phase C, an enhanced prototype was produced, and the same users from Phase B navigated the Resource in individual sessions. Median SUS score was 88.75 (85-95), and median AES score was 27.5 (25-29). Users considered the Resource as feasible for implementation, easy to navigate, engaging, intuitive, comprehensive, and evidence-based. Users highlighted the potential transferability of the Resource to other contexts and settings. The enhanced version of the ImPaC Resource was usable, acceptable, feasible, and met users' expectations and requirements. Results lead the way for evaluation of the Resource in a nationwide cluster randomized trial including 18 NICUs. This knowledge-rich platform is expected to enhance infant pain practices and outcomes in diverse clinical settings.
Effectiveness of a parent‐targeted video on neonatal pain management: Nonrandomized pragmatic trial
The “Be sweet to babies” video is a knowledge translation tool targeted at parents on the use of analgesic strategies during painful procedures performed in neonates. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Portuguese version of this video on maternal involvement in neonatal pain management during the newborn screening blood test. Nonrandomized, pragmatic clinical trial. The study was conducted in a rooming-in unit. All mothers received a pamphlet regarding neonatal pain management and were invited to participate in daily education sessions conducted by nurses, which included the video. The intervention group included mothers who voluntarily watched the video, while the control group was comprised of mothers who did not attend the education sessions or left the session before watching the video. Data were collected by interviews conducted by the research team. Descriptive and inferential analysis considered a confidence interval of 95%. A total of 73 mothers were included in the study. Analgesic strategies were used in 14 (40%) of the procedures in the intervention group and 9 (24%) in the control group, a clinically important difference of 16% points between groups, although no statistically significant difference was found (P = .13). Breastfeeding was the most commonly used strategy. Watching the video increased the chance of implementing analgesic strategies by 2.1 times (P = .19), while nurses suggesting the use of analgesia increased this chance by 5.5 times (P = .006). Although no statistical significance was found, the results suggest the clinical significance and feasibility of the “Be sweet to babies” video as a KT tool targeted at parents on neonatal pain management during nonurgent painful procedures. In addition, maternal involvement in pain care significantly increased when pain relief strategies were recommended by nurses, which suggests that nurses have a key role in facilitating parental participation.
“Be sweet to babies”: Use of Facebook as a method of knowledge dissemination and data collection in the reduction of neonatal pain
The Be Sweet to Babies video demonstrates the analgesic effects of breastfeeding, skin-to-skin care, and sweet-tasting solutions as interventions to reduce pain during blood sampling in newborns. Although effective and safe, these strategies are implemented inconsistently in clinical settings. Given the increasing popularity of social media, there is a potential to disseminate and promote health information through it. The study aim was to evaluate the use of Facebook as a means of disseminating the Be Sweet to Babies video in Portuguese, and to evaluate respondents’ prior knowledge, previous use of the three pain management strategies and intent to use the strategies in the future. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using the “virtual snowball” sampling method. A Facebook webpage was created, in which the video was posted along with a brief survey. Data analyzed included number of views and visits to the page, number of views of the video, likes, dislikes, and survey responses. One year after posting, the page had 70 753 views and 2199 accesses; there were 1553 “likes”, no dislikes, and 43 positive comments. The survey was completed by 930 respondents (42% response rate based on the page access). Over two thirds of the respondents had previous knowledge about breastfeeding, skin-to-skin care, and sweet solutions for pain relief. After watching the video, 87% of the respondents intended to use breastfeeding or skin-to-skin care in the future, and 71% intended to use sweet solutions. Almost all viewers rated the video as very useful (n = 917, 99%), easy to understand (n = 926, 99%), and easy to apply in real-life situations (n = 903, 97%). Using Facebook to deliver and evaluate an intervention is feasible, rapid in obtaining responses, low cost, and it is promising for data collection and knowledge dissemination. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the actual impact of the use of social media in practice change.
A cluster randomized clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the Implementation of Infant Pain Practice Change (ImPaC) Resource to improve pain practices in hospitalized infants: a study protocol
BACKGROUND: Hospitalized infants undergo multiple painful procedures daily. Despite the significant evidence, procedural pain assessment and management continues to be suboptimal. Repetitive and untreated pain at this vital developmental juncture is associated with negative behavioral and neurodevelopmental consequences. To address this knowledge to practice gap, we developed the web-based Implementation of Infant Pain Practice Change (ImPaC) Resource to guide change in healthcare professionals' pain practice behaviors. This protocol describes the evaluation of the intervention effectiveness and implementation of the Resource and how organizational context influences outcomes. METHODS: An effectiveness-implementation hybrid type 1 design, blending a cluster randomized clinical trial and a mixed-methods implementation study will be used. Eighteen Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs) across Canada will be randomized to intervention (INT) or standard practice (SP) groups. NICUs in the INT group will receive the Resource for six months; those in the SP group will continue with practice as usual and will be offered the Resource after a six-month waiting period. Data analysts will be blinded to group allocation. To address the intervention effectiveness, the INT and SP groups will be compared on clinical outcomes including the proportion of infants who have procedural pain assessed and managed, and the frequency and nature of painful procedures. Data will be collected at baseline (before randomization) and at completion of the intervention (six months). Implementation outcomes (feasibility, fidelity, implementation cost, and reach) will be measured at completion of the intervention. Sustainability will be assessed at six and 12 months following the intervention. Organizational context will be assessed to examine its influence on intervention and implementation outcomes. DISCUSSION: This mixed-methods study aims to determine the effectiveness and the implementation of a multifaceted online strategy for changing healthcare professionals' pain practices for hospitalized infants. Implementation strategies that are easily and effectively implemented are important for sustained change. The results will inform healthcare professionals and decision-makers on how to address the challenges of implementing the Resource within various organizational contexts. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03825822. Registered 31 January 2019.
The minimally effective dose of sucrose for procedural pain relief in neonates: a randomized controlled trial
BACKGROUND: Orally administered sucrose is effective and safe in reducing pain intensity during single, tissue-damaging procedures in neonates, and is commonly recommended in neonatal pain guidelines. However, there is wide variability in sucrose doses examined in research, and more than a 20-fold variation across neonatal care settings. The aim of this study was to determine the minimally effective dose of 24% sucrose for reducing pain in hospitalized neonates undergoing a single skin-breaking heel lance procedure. METHODS: A total of 245 neonates from 4 Canadian tertiary neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), born between 24 and 42 weeks gestational age (GA), were prospectively randomized to receive one of three doses of 24% sucrose, plus non-nutritive sucking/pacifier, 2 min before a routine heel lance: 0.1 ml (Group 1; n = 81), 0.5 ml (Group 2; n = 81), or 1.0 ml (Group 3; n = 83). The primary outcome was pain intensity measured at 30 and 60 s following the heel lance, using the Premature Infant Pain Profile-Revised (PIPP-R). The secondary outcome was the incidence of adverse events. Analysis of covariance models, adjusting for GA and study site examined between group differences in pain intensity across intervention groups. RESULTS: There was no difference in mean pain intensity PIPP-R scores between treatment groups at 30 s (P = .97) and 60 s (P = .93); however, pain was not fully eliminated during the heel lance procedure. There were 5 reported adverse events among 5/245 (2.0%) neonates, with no significant differences in the proportion of events by sucrose dose (P = .62). All events resolved spontaneously without medical intervention. CONCLUSIONS: The minimally effective dose of 24% sucrose required to treat pain associated with a single heel lance in neonates was 0.1 ml. Further evaluation regarding the sustained effectiveness of this dose in reducing pain intensity in neonates for repeated painful procedures is warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT02134873. Date: May 5, 2014 (retrospectively registered).
Decision coaching using the Ottawa family decision guide with parents and their children: a field testing study
BACKGROUND: Although children can benefit from being included in health decisions, little is known about effective interventions to support their involvement. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of decision coaching guided by the Ottawa Family Decision Guide with children and parents considering insulin delivery options for type 1 diabetes (insulin pump, multiple daily injections, or standard insulin injections). METHODS: Pre-/post-test field testing design. Eligible participants were children (≤18 years) with type 1 diabetes and their parents attending an ambulatory diabetes clinic in a tertiary children's hospital. Parent-child dyads received decision coaching using the Ottawa Family Decision Guide that was pre-populated with evidence on insulin delivery options, benefits, and harms. Primary outcomes were feasibility of recruitment and data collection, and parent and child acceptability of the intervention. RESULTS: Of 16 families invited to participate, 12 agreed and 7 attended the decision coaching session. For the five missed families, two families were unable to attend the session or the decision coach was not available (N=3). Baseline and immediately post-coaching questionnaires were all completed and follow-up questionnaires two weeks post-coaching were missing from one parent-child dyad. Missing questionnaire items were 5 of 340 items for children (1.5%) and 1 of 429 for parents (0.2%). Decision coaching was rated as acceptable with higher scores from parents and their children who were in earlier stages of decision making. CONCLUSION: Decision coaching with children and their parents considering insulin options was feasible implement and evaluate in our diabetes clinic and was acceptable to participants. Recruitment was difficult due to scheduling restrictions related to the timing of the study. Coaching should target participants earlier in the decision making process and be scheduled at times that are convenient for families and coaches. Findings were used to inform a full-scale evaluation that is currently underway.
Children's psychological and behavioral responses following pediatric intensive care unit hospitalization: the caring intensively study
BACKGROUND: Pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) hospitalization places children at increased risk of persistent psychological and behavioral difficulties following discharge. Despite tremendous advances in medical technology and treatment regimes, approximately 25% of children demonstrate negative psychological and behavioral outcomes within the first year post-discharge. It is imperative that a broader array of risk factors and outcome indicators be explored in examining long-term psychological morbidity to identify areas for future health promotion and clinical intervention. This study aims to examine psychological and behavioral responses in children aged 3 to 12 years over a three year period following PICU hospitalization, and compare them to children who have undergone ear, nose and/or throat (ENT) day surgery. METHODS/DESIGN: This mixed-methods prospective cohort study will enrol 220 children aged 3 to 12 years during PICU hospitalization (study group, n = 110) and ENT day surgery hospitalization (comparison group, n = 110). Participants will be recruited from 3 Canadian pediatric hospitals, and followed for 3 years with data collection points at 6 weeks, 6 months, 1 year, 2 years and 3 years post-discharge. Psychological and behavioral characteristics of the child, and parent anxiety and parenting stress, will be assessed prior to hospital discharge, and again at each of the 5 subsequent time points, using standardized measures. Psychological and behavioral response scores for both groups will be compared at each follow-up time point. Multivariate regression analysis will be used to adjust for demographic and clinical variables at baseline. To explore baseline factors predictive of poor psychological and behavioral scores at 3 years among PICU patients, correlation analysis and multivariate linear regression will be used. A subgroup of 40 parents of study group children will be interviewed at years 1 and 3 post-discharge to explore their perceptions of the impact of PICU hospitalization on their children and enhance our understanding of findings generated from standardized measures in the larger cohort study. An interpretive descriptive approach will guide qualitative data collection and analysis. DISCUSSION: This study aims to generate new information regarding the magnitude and duration of psychological and behavioral disturbances among children admitted to PICUs, potentially leading to remedial or preventive interventions.
Implementation of multidimensional knowledge translation strategies to improve procedural pain in hospitalized children
BACKGROUND: Despite extensive research, institutional policies, and practice guidelines, procedural pain remains undertreated in hospitalized children. Knowledge translation (KT) strategies have been employed to bridge the research to practice gap with varying success. The most effective single or combination of KT strategies has not been found. A multifaceted KT intervention, Evidence-based Practice for Improving Quality (EPIQ), that included tailored KT strategies was effective in improving pain practices and clinical outcomes at the unit level in a prospective comparative cohort study in 32 hospital units (16 EPIQ intervention and 16 Standard Care), in eight pediatric hospitals in Canada. In a study of the 16 EPIQ units (two at each hospital) only, the objectives were to: determine the effectiveness of evidence-based KT strategies implemented to achieve unit aims; describe the KT strategies implemented and their influence on pain assessment and management across unit types; and identify facilitators and barriers to their implementation. METHODS: Data were collected from each EPIQ intervention unit on targeted pain practices and KT strategies implemented, through chart review and a process evaluation checklist, following four intervention cycles over a 15-month period. RESULTS: Following the completion of the four cycle intervention, 78% of 23 targeted pain practice aims across units were achieved within 80% of the stated aims. A statistically significant improvement was found in the proportion of children receiving pain assessment and management, regardless of pre-determined aims (p < 0.001). The median number of KT strategies implemented was 35 and included reminders, educational outreach and materials, and audit and feedback. Units successful in achieving their aims implemented more KT strategies than units that did not. No specific type of single or combination of KT strategies was more effective in improving pain assessment and management outcomes. Tailoring KT strategies to unit context, support from unit leadership, staff engagement, and dedicated time and resources were identified as facilitating effective implementation of the strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Further research is required to better understand implementation outcomes, such as feasibility and fidelity, how context influences the effectiveness of multifaceted KT strategies, and the sustainability of improved pain practices and outcomes over time.