Co-occurrence of behavioral risk factors of common non-communicable diseases among urban slum dwellers in Nairobi, Kenya
AuthorHaregu, TN; Oti, S; Egondi, T; Kyobutungi, C
Source TitleGlobal Health Action
PublisherTAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD
University of Melbourne Author/sHaregu, Tilahun
AffiliationMelbourne School of Population and Global Health
Document TypeJournal Article
CitationsHaregu, T. N., Oti, S., Egondi, T. & Kyobutungi, C. (2015). Co-occurrence of behavioral risk factors of common non-communicable diseases among urban slum dwellers in Nairobi, Kenya. GLOBAL HEALTH ACTION, 8 (1), pp.1-8. https://doi.org/10.3402/gha.v8.28697.
Access StatusOpen Access
Open Access at PMChttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4575413
BACKGROUND: The four common non-communicable diseases (NCDs) account for 80% of NCD-related deaths worldwide. The four NCDs share four common risk factors. As most of the existing evidence on the common NCD risk factors is based on analysis of a single factor at a time, there is a need to investigate the co-occurrence of the common NCD risk factors, particularly in an urban slum setting in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of co-occurrence of the four common NCDs risk factors among urban slum dwellers in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: This analysis was based on the data collected as part of a cross-sectional survey to assess linkages among socio-economic status, perceived personal risk, and risk factors for cardiovascular and NCDs in a population of slum dwellers in Nairobi, Kenya, in 2008-2009. A total of 5,190 study subjects were included in the analysis. After selecting relevant variables for common NCD risk factors, we computed the prevalence of all possible combinations of the four common NCD risk factors. The analysis was disaggregated by relevant background variables. RESULTS: The weighted prevalences of unhealthy diet, insufficient physical activity, harmful use of alcohol, and tobacco use were found to be 57.2, 14.4, 10.1, and 12.4%, respectively. Nearly 72% of the study participants had at least one of the four NCD risk factors. About 52% of the study population had any one of the four NCD risk factors. About one-fifth (19.8%) had co-occurrence of NCD risk factors. Close to one in six individuals (17.6%) had two NCD risk factors, while only 2.2% had three or four NCD risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: One out of five of people in the urban slum settings of Nairobi had co-occurrence of NCD risk factors. Both comprehensive and differentiated approaches are needed for effective NCD prevention and control in these settings.
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