Mild traumatic brain injury presenting with delayed intracranial hemorrhage in warfarin therapy: a case report.
AuthorChung, P; Khan, F
Source TitleJournal of Medical Case Reports
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media LLC
Document TypeJournal Article
CitationsChung, P. & Khan, F. (2015). Mild traumatic brain injury presenting with delayed intracranial hemorrhage in warfarin therapy: a case report.. J Med Case Rep, 9 (1), pp.173-. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13256-015-0652-2.
Access StatusOpen Access
Open Access at PMChttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4539919
INTRODUCTION: Current literature estimates the risk of delayed intracranial hemorrhage as between 0.6 and 6% after mild head injury for patients on warfarin. Due to resource allocation issues, the need to actually diagnose delayed intracranial haemorrhage has been questioned, especially if it does not require surgery. The purpose of our case report is to consider the functional implications during the six months following a mild traumatic brain injury complicated by delayed intracranial hemorrhage in a patient undergoing warfarin therapy. To the best of our knowledge, the rehabilitative and functional considerations of delayed intracranial haemorrhage in head injury have not been previously described in the literature. CASE PRESENTATION: A previously independent 74-year-old Lebanese man living in Australia sustained mild traumatic brain injury following an unwitnessed fall from the height of two meters while on warfarin therapy, with an international normalized ratio of 4.2. He was found to have amnesia of the event and extensive facial bruising. His Glasgow Coma Scale score was 14 to 15 throughout observation. Following a non-diagnostic initial computerised tomography scan, a repeat scan at 24 hours from the injury identified large intracerebral, subdural and subarachnoid hemorrhages. A detailed examination demonstrated visuospatial and cognitive impairments. He required inpatient rehabilitation for three weeks, and outpatient rehabilitation for two months. By six months, he had returned to his pre-injury level of functioning, but was unable to resume driving. CONCLUSIONS: We describe rehabilitation outcomes of delayed intracranial haemorrhage and mild traumatic brain injury, with diminishing disability over six months. In our case report, the complication of the delayed intracranial haemorrhage resulted in significant activity limitations and participation restrictions, which affected the clinical management, including the need for multidisciplinary rehabilitation. The risk of delayed intracranial haemorrhage in mild head injury remains a significant problem requiring further research.
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