Understanding symptom appraisal and help-seeking in people with symptoms suggestive of pancreatic cancer: a qualitative study
AuthorMills, K; Birt, L; Emery, JD; Hall, N; Banks, J; Johnson, M; Lancaster, J; Hamilton, W; Rubin, GP; Walter, FM
Source TitleBMJ Open
PublisherBMJ PUBLISHING GROUP
Document TypeJournal Article
CitationsMills, K., Birt, L., Emery, J. D., Hall, N., Banks, J., Johnson, M., Lancaster, J., Hamilton, W., Rubin, G. P. & Walter, F. M. (2017). Understanding symptom appraisal and help-seeking in people with symptoms suggestive of pancreatic cancer: a qualitative study. BMJ OPEN, 7 (9), https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-015682.
Access StatusOpen Access
OBJECTIVE:Pancreatic cancer has poor survival rates due to non-specific symptoms leading to later diagnosis. Understanding how patients interpret their symptoms could inform approaches to earlier diagnosis. This study sought to explore symptom appraisal and help-seeking among patients referred to secondary care for symptoms suggestive of pancreatic cancer. DESIGN:Qualitative analysis of semistructured in-depth interviews. Data were analysed iteratively and thematically, informed by the Model of Pathways to Treatment. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING:Pancreatic cancer occurs rarely in younger adults, therefore patients aged ≥40 years were recruited from nine hospitals after being referred to hospital with symptoms suggestive of pancreatic cancer; all were participants in a cohort study. Interviews were conducted soon after referral, and where possible, before diagnosis. RESULTS:Twenty-six interviews were conducted (cancer n=13 (pancreas n=9, other intra-abdominal n=4), non-cancer conditions n=13; age range 48-84 years; 14 women). Time from first symptoms to first presentation to healthcare ranged from 1 day to 270 days, median 21 days. We identified three main themes. Initial symptom appraisal usually began with intermittent, non-specific symptoms such as tiredness or appetite changes, attributed to diet and lifestyle, existing gastrointestinal conditions or side effects of medication. Responses to initial symptom appraisal included changes in meal type or frequency, or self-medication. Symptom changes such as alterations in appetite and enjoyment of food or weight loss usually prompted further appraisal. Triggers to seek help included a change or worsening of symptoms, particularly pain, which was often a 'tipping point'. Help-seeking was often encouraged by others. We found no differences in symptom appraisal and help-seeking between people diagnosed with cancer and those with other conditions. CONCLUSIONS:Greater public and healthcare professional awareness of the combinations of subtle and intermittent symptoms, and their evolving nature, is needed to prompt timelier help-seeking and investigation among people with symptoms of pancreatic cancer.
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