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dc.contributor.authorAslam, N
dc.contributor.authorTipu, MY
dc.contributor.authorIshaq, M
dc.contributor.authorCowling, A
dc.contributor.authorMcGill, D
dc.contributor.authorWarriach, HM
dc.contributor.authorWynn, P
dc.date.accessioned2020-12-22T02:54:44Z
dc.date.available2020-12-22T02:54:44Z
dc.date.issued2016-12-01
dc.identifierpii: toxins8120347
dc.identifier.citationAslam, N., Tipu, M. Y., Ishaq, M., Cowling, A., McGill, D., Warriach, H. M. & Wynn, P. (2016). Higher Levels of Aflatoxin M1 Contamination and Poorer Composition of Milk Supplied by Informal Milk Marketing Chains in Pakistan. TOXINS, 8 (12), https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins8120347.
dc.identifier.issn2072-6651
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11343/257740
dc.description.abstractThe present study was conducted to observe the seasonal variation in aflatoxin M1 and nutritional quality of milk along informal marketing chains. Milk samples (485) were collected from three different chains over a period of one year. The average concentrations of aflatoxin M1 during the autumn and monsoon seasons (2.60 and 2.59 ppb) were found to be significantly higher (standard error of the difference, SED = 0.21: p = 0.003) than in the summer (1.93 ppb). The percentage of added water in milk was significantly lower (SED = 1.54: p < 0.001) in summer (18.59%) than in the monsoon season (26.39%). There was a significantly different (SED = 2.38: p < 0.001) mean percentage of water added by farmers (6.23%), small collectors (14.97%), large collectors (27.96%) and retailers (34.52%). This was reflected in changes in milk quality along the marketing chain. There was no difference (p = 0.178) in concentration of aflatoxin M1 in milk collected from the farmers (2.12 ppb), small collectors (2.23 ppb), large collectors (2.36 ppb) and retailers (2.58 ppb). The high levels of contamination found in this study, which exceed the standards set by European Union (0.05 ppb) and USFDA (0.5 ppb), demand radical intervention by regulatory authorities and mass awareness of the consequences for consumer health and safety.
dc.languageEnglish
dc.publisherMDPI AG
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0
dc.titleHigher Levels of Aflatoxin M1 Contamination and Poorer Composition of Milk Supplied by Informal Milk Marketing Chains in Pakistan
dc.typeJournal Article
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/toxins8120347
melbourne.affiliation.departmentVeterinary Clinical Sciences
melbourne.source.titleToxins
melbourne.source.volume8
melbourne.source.issue12
dc.rights.licenseCC BY
melbourne.elementsid1125908
melbourne.openaccess.pmchttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5198542
melbourne.contributor.authorMcGill, David
melbourne.contributor.authorWarriach, Hassan
dc.identifier.eissn2072-6651
melbourne.accessrightsOpen Access


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