National estimates of Australian gambling prevalence: findings from a dual-frame omnibus survey
AuthorDowling, NA; Youssef, GJ; Jackson, AC; Pennay, DW; Francis, KL; Pennay, A; Lubman, DI
AffiliationMelbourne Graduate School of Education
Document TypeJournal Article
CitationsDowling, N. A., Youssef, G. J., Jackson, A. C., Pennay, D. W., Francis, K. L., Pennay, A. & Lubman, D. I. (2016). National estimates of Australian gambling prevalence: findings from a dual-frame omnibus survey. ADDICTION, 111 (3), pp.420-435. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.13176.
Access StatusOpen Access
BACKGROUND, AIMS AND DESIGN: The increase in mobile telephone-only households may be a source of bias for traditional landline gambling prevalence surveys. Aims were to: (1) identify Australian gambling participation and problem gambling prevalence using a dual-frame (50% landline and 50% mobile telephone) computer-assisted telephone interviewing methodology; (2) explore the predictors of sample frame and telephone status; and (3) explore the degree to which sample frame and telephone status moderate the relationships between respondent characteristics and problem gambling. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 2000 adult respondents residing in Australia were interviewed from March to April 2013. MEASUREMENTS: Participation in multiple gambling activities and Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). FINDINGS: Estimates were: gambling participation [63.9%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 61.4-66.3], problem gambling (0.4%, 95% CI = 0.2-0.8), moderate-risk gambling (1.9%, 95% CI = 1.3-2.6) and low-risk gambling (3.0%, 95% CI = 2.2-4.0). Relative to the landline frame, the mobile frame was more likely to gamble on horse/greyhound races [odds ratio (OR) = 1.4], casino table games (OR = 5.0), sporting events (OR = 2.2), private games (OR = 1.9) and the internet (OR = 6.5); less likely to gamble on lotteries (OR = 0.6); and more likely to gamble on five or more activities (OR = 2.4), display problem gambling (OR = 6.4) and endorse PGSI items (OR = 2.4-6.1). Only casino table gambling (OR = 2.9) and internet gambling (OR = 3.5) independently predicted mobile frame membership. Telephone status (landline frame versus mobile dual users and mobile-only users) displayed similar findings. Finally, sample frame and/or telephone status moderated the relationship between gender, relationship status, health and problem gambling (OR = 2.9-7.6). CONCLUSION: Given expected future increases in the mobile telephone-only population, best practice in population gambling research should use dual frame sampling methodologies (at least 50% landline and 50% mobile telephone) for telephone interviewing.
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