Profiling Gene Expression Induced by Protease-Activated Receptor 2 (PAR2) Activation in Human Kidney Cells
AuthorSuen, JY; Gardiner, B; Grimmond, S; Fairlie, DP
Source TitlePLoS One
PublisherPUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE
University of Melbourne Author/sGrimmond, Sean
AffiliationCentre for Cancer Research
Document TypeJournal Article
CitationsSuen, J. Y., Gardiner, B., Grimmond, S. & Fairlie, D. P. (2010). Profiling Gene Expression Induced by Protease-Activated Receptor 2 (PAR2) Activation in Human Kidney Cells. PLOS ONE, 5 (11), https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013809.
Access StatusOpen Access
Protease-Activated Receptor-2 (PAR2) has been implicated through genetic knockout mice with cytokine regulation and arthritis development. Many studies have associated PAR2 with inflammatory conditions (arthritis, airways inflammation, IBD) and key events in tumor progression (angiogenesis, metastasis), but they have relied heavily on the use of single agonists to identify physiological roles for PAR2. However such probes are now known not to be highly selective for PAR2, and thus precisely what PAR2 does and what mechanisms of downstream regulation are truly affected remain obscure. Effects of PAR2 activation on gene expression in Human Embryonic Kidney cells (HEK293), a commonly studied cell line in PAR2 research, were investigated here by comparing 19,000 human genes for intersecting up- or down-regulation by both trypsin (an endogenous protease that activates PAR2) and a PAR2 activating hexapeptide (2f-LIGRLO-NH(2)). Among 2,500 human genes regulated similarly by both agonists, there were clear associations between PAR2 activation and cellular metabolism (1,000 genes), the cell cycle, the MAPK pathway, HDAC and sirtuin enzymes, inflammatory cytokines, and anti-complement function. PAR-2 activation up-regulated four genes more than 5 fold (DUSP6, WWOX, AREG, SERPINB2) and down-regulated another six genes more than 3 fold (TXNIP, RARG, ITGB4, CTSD, MSC and TM4SF15). Both PAR2 and PAR1 activation resulted in up-regulated expression of several genes (CD44, FOSL1, TNFRSF12A, RAB3A, COPEB, CORO1C, THBS1, SDC4) known to be important in cancer. This is the first widespread profiling of specific activation of PAR2 and provides a valuable platform for better understanding key mechanistic roles of PAR2 in human physiology. Results clearly support the development of both antagonists and agonists of human PAR2 as potential disease modifying therapeutic agents.
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