The hidden variable: environmental migration from North Korea
AuthorSong, J; Habib, B
Source TitleThe Pacific Review
PublisherTaylor & Francis (Routledge)
University of Melbourne Author/sSong, Jiyoung
Document TypeJournal Article
CitationsSong, J. & Habib, B. (2020). The hidden variable: environmental migration from North Korea. The Pacific Review, https://doi.org/10.1080/09512748.2020.1778061.
Access StatusThis item is currently not available from this repository
North Korea’s vulnerability to environmental shocks is an under-appreciated variable in the country’s human insecurity profile. Based on the United Nations Development Programme’s seven pillars of human security and using primary and secondary sources on weather, food and health conditions, the article argues that the intersection of environmental shocks with multiple human insecurities create an exacerbating chain effect on people’s lives in North Korea and prompt adaptive responses from both individuals and the government. We find the regional variations in adaptive capacity as the data shows more people from Hamgyong and Yanggang provinces used outbound migration as an option to survive than other areas, mediated by geography and gender. While Kim Jong Il largely failed to respond to human security threats, Kim Jong Un has adopted a few limited measures to mitigate further damages.
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