Investigating the Role of Residential PV Systems for Primary Frequency Regulation
AffiliationElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Document TypePhD thesis
Access StatusThis item is embargoed and will be available on 2023-01-29. This item is currently available to University of Melbourne staff and students only, login required.
© 2020 William Nacmanson
The increasing penetration of residential photovoltaic (PV) systems is reducing net demand leading to displacement of synchronous generation, with serious implications on the provision of Primary Frequency Response (PFR) following a contingency. Furthermore, distribution networks require management of excessive reverse power flows caused by residential PV system to avoid voltage or asset utilisation violations. To prevent distribution network problems exports limit are often imposed, but at the sacrifice of total power exported. Through pre-curtailment of maximum generation, or re-distribution of power through dynamic optimal export limits, it is possible for residential PV systems to create a power reserve for PFR. Furthermore, time-varying net demand from residential PV will lead to many changing operating states, with implications on the oscillatory performance of synchronous generators still online. In this context, this thesis investigates and proposes methodologies to determine the role of residential PV systems in the provision of PFR and the effect of a time-varying net demand on small signal stability. To achieve this, however, several of the corresponding challenges need to be understood. Firstly, the effects at the system-level from an increase in PV penetration need to be understood. It is required to model how synchronous generators change power output to in response to a change in net demand. The dispatch of PFR for the synchronous generators must also be considered. Secondly, any pre-curtailment of a PV system for PFR, will alter the net demand and potential PFR requirements. Thirdly, residential PV systems are connected to the power system through distribution networks. Distribution networks require management to prevent network issues related to high penetrations of residential PV systems, which influences net demand. This requires modelling and understanding how distribution networks operate and are restricted by their physical limitations, along with how they are managed. This all has an impact on the net demand at the system level which needs to be considered. Finally, the time-varying nature of a power system with high penetrations of PV (and the displacement it causes) presents a challenge in assessing small signal stability, whilst also being unable to relate the performance of specific constant remaining modes of oscillation throughout the day. This thesis addresses the aforementioned challenges as follows: A unit commitment (UC) is utilised to model the behaviour of generators in time, enabling modelling of changes in power output in response to residential PV, determining which generators are forced offline, as well as the distribution of PFR among the synchronous generators. The UC is modified to pre-curtail power of residential PV systems for PFR, accounting for the change in net demand from pre-curtailment in the supply of PFR. Using a modified IEEE-9 bus system, the findings highlight that residential PV systems providing PFR can prevent the inefficient and costly operation of synchronous generators (providing PFR) at low power outputs. The need for representing distribution networks to assess the role of residential PV systems providing PFR is demonstrated using a realistic Australian MV-LV residential feeder (from the primary substation to individual customers). Export limits are imposed to prevent steady-state distribution problems. The findings highlight that if distribution network constraints are not considered, the level of synchronous generator displacement may be significantly over-estimated, with corresponding knock on affects for PFR requirements. The application of optimal dynamic export limits beyond managing steady-state issues in distribution networks are applied for providing PFR. A method to translate these optimal dynamic export limits to enable a reserve via droop settings for PFR is proposed. It was found that there is a significant PFR reserve available across a power system if optimal dynamic export limits are used. This PFR reserve from residential PV systems can help reduce system costs with synchronous generators no longer operating at low power just to provide PFR. The small signal stability of the system is assessed considering a time-varying net demand and corresponding response of synchronous generators, by integrating a UC with a small signal stability study. Furthermore, a method is presented whereby oscillatory modes that remain despite displacement can be tracked. Results showed that oscillatory modes can change their damping behaviour significantly in time, with oscillatory modes changing criticality (which are the least damped). This is significant given that an approach not considering a time-varying net demand may miss these findings which may lead to improper damping.
KeywordsPrimary Frequency Response; Distribution Networks; Small Signal Stability; Residential PV systems; PV; Photovoltaic Systems; Ancillary Services; Power System Stability; Export Limits; Unit Commitment; Electromechanical Oscillations; Droop Settings
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