Copyright exceptions and contract
AffiliationMelbourne Law School
Document TypePhD thesis
Access StatusThis item is embargoed and will be available on 2023-02-03. This item is currently available to University of Melbourne staff and students only, login required.
© 2019 Adrian Michael Aronsson-Storrier
This thesis addresses the relationship between copyright exceptions and contractual provisions which seek to preclude users relying on those exceptions. It argues that the topic has been insufficiently theorised and that, in order to properly understand the interaction of copyright and contract, attention must be given to the rationale for freedom of contract and the contested rationales for copyright exceptions. Chapter 2 of the thesis addresses the doctrinal relationship between copyright exceptions and contract in UK. The chapter also considers recent legislative reforms in the EU and the way in which copyright exceptions and contract have been conceptualised under EU law, forming a context for the theoretical examination in later chapters. Chapter 3 discusses the nature of freedom of contract which is often referred to as a foundational or preeminent value within ‘western’ legal systems. The chapter argues that under the main theoretical understandings of contract theory there is significant scope to justifiably limited parties’ freedom of contract, particularly in connection with protecting the interests of third parties or where transaction involves significant externalities cannot take into account by the parties to the contract. Chapter 4 addresses Locke’s labour theory of property entitlement and the way it has been applied to copyright law. It analyses the extent to which Lockean theory can be applied to intellectual property law, discussing the nature of the intellectual commons that authors draw upon in order to create copyright protected works. It argues that the Lockean sufficiency, waste and charity provisos require the existence of copyright exceptions in order for property rights in expression to be legitimate. Chapter 5 of the thesis considers the law and economics understanding of copyright law and copyright exceptions. The chapter concludes that under a properly articulated law and economics approach to copyright law, copyright exceptions play important role in optimising the level of copyright protection and maximising social welfare. Chapter 6 considers the relationship between freedom of expression and copyright exceptions. It concludes that at both a theoretical level and within the approach taken by the courts, copyright exceptions must be consistent with freedom of expression interests and that copyright exceptions play important role in giving life to the broader social dimensions of freedom of expression. Chapter 7 draws together the material in chapter 3 on the nature of freedom of contract with the material in chapters 4, 5 and 6 on the rationales for copyright exceptions. The chapter argues that once the underlying theoretical rationales for both contract and copyright fully considered, it is clear that copyright exceptions are required under each of the underlying copyright rationales and that freedom of contract rationales do not justify permitting private parties to modify these copyright exceptions in their contractual dealings.
KeywordsCopyright; Copyright Exceptions; Intellectual Property; Contractual override
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