VPAC Receptor Subtypes Tune Purinergic Neuron-to-Glia Communication in the Murine Submucosal Plexus
AuthorFung, C; Boesmans, W; Cirillo, C; Foong, JPP; Bornstein, JC; Berghe, PV
Source TitleFrontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
PublisherFRONTIERS MEDIA SA
AffiliationAnatomy and Neuroscience
Document TypeJournal Article
CitationsFung, C., Boesmans, W., Cirillo, C., Foong, J. P. P., Bornstein, J. C. & Berghe, P. V. (2017). VPAC Receptor Subtypes Tune Purinergic Neuron-to-Glia Communication in the Murine Submucosal Plexus. FRONTIERS IN CELLULAR NEUROSCIENCE, 11, https://doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2017.00118.
Access StatusOpen Access
The enteric nervous system (ENS) situated within the gastrointestinal tract comprises an intricate network of neurons and glia which together regulate intestinal function. The exact neuro-glial circuitry and the signaling molecules involved are yet to be fully elucidated. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is one of the main neurotransmitters in the gut, and is important for regulating intestinal secretion and motility. However, the role of VIP and its VPAC receptors within the enteric circuitry is not well understood. We investigated this in the submucosal plexus of mouse jejunum using calcium (Ca2+)-imaging. Local VIP application induced Ca2+-transients primarily in neurons and these were inhibited by VPAC1- and VPAC2-antagonists (PG 99-269 and PG 99-465 respectively). These VIP-evoked neural Ca2+-transients were also inhibited by tetrodotoxin (TTX), indicating that they were secondary to action potential generation. Surprisingly, VIP induced Ca2+-transients in glia in the presence of the VPAC2 antagonist. Further, selective VPAC1 receptor activation with the agonist ([K15, R16, L27]VIP(1-7)/GRF(8-27)) predominantly evoked glial responses. However, VPAC1-immunoreactivity did not colocalize with the glial marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Rather, VPAC1 expression was found on cholinergic submucosal neurons and nerve fibers. This suggests that glial responses observed were secondary to neuronal activation. Trains of electrical stimuli were applied to fiber tracts to induce endogenous VIP release. Delayed glial responses were evoked when the VPAC2 antagonist was present. These findings support the presence of an intrinsic VIP/VPAC-initiated neuron-to-glia signaling pathway. VPAC1 agonist-evoked glial responses were inhibited by purinergic antagonists (PPADS and MRS2179), thus demonstrating the involvement of P2Y1 receptors. Collectively, we showed that neurally-released VIP can activate neurons expressing VPAC1 and/or VPAC2 receptors to modulate purine-release onto glia. Selective VPAC1 activation evokes a glial response, whereas VPAC2 receptors may act to inhibit this response. Thus, we identified a component of an enteric neuron-glia circuit that is fine-tuned by endogenous VIP acting through VPAC1- and VPAC2-mediated pathways.
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