Induction of virulence factors in Giardia duodenalis independent of host attachment.
AuthorEmery, SJ; Mirzaei, M; Vuong, D; Pascovici, D; Chick, JM; Lacey, E; Haynes, PA
Source TitleScientific Reports
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media LLC
University of Melbourne Author/sEmery, Samantha
AffiliationMedical Biology (W.E.H.I.)
Document TypeJournal Article
CitationsEmery, S. J., Mirzaei, M., Vuong, D., Pascovici, D., Chick, J. M., Lacey, E. & Haynes, P. A. (2016). Induction of virulence factors in Giardia duodenalis independent of host attachment.. Sci Rep, 6 (1), pp.20765-. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep20765.
Access StatusOpen Access
Open Access at PMChttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4751611
Giardia duodenalis is responsible for the majority of parasitic gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Host-parasite interaction models in vitro provide insights into disease and virulence and help us to understand pathogenesis. Using HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) as a model we have demonstrated that initial sensitisation by host secretions reduces proclivity for trophozoite attachment, while inducing virulence factors. Host soluble factors triggered up-regulation of membrane and secreted proteins, including Tenascins, Cathepsin-B precursor, cystatin, and numerous Variant-specific Surface Proteins (VSPs). By comparison, host-cell attached trophozoites up-regulated intracellular pathways for ubiquitination, reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification and production of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP). We reason that these results demonstrate early pathogenesis in Giardia involves two independent host-parasite interactions. Motile trophozoites respond to soluble secreted signals, which deter attachment and induce expression of virulence factors. Trophozoites attached to host cells, in contrast, respond by up-regulating intracellular pathways involved in clearance of ROS, thus anticipating the host defence response.
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