Physiotherapy - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 307
Functional Brain Plasticity Associated with ACL Injury: A Scoping Review of Current Evidence
(HINDAWI LTD, 2019-12-27)
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is a common problem with consequences ranging from chronic joint instability to early development of osteoarthritis. Recent studies suggest that changes in brain activity (i.e., functional neuroplasticity) may be related to ACL injury. The purpose of this article is to summarize the available evidence of functional brain plasticity after an ACL injury. A scoping review was conducted following the guidelines of the Joanna Briggs Institute and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. The terms "brain," "activity," "neuroplasticity," "ACL," "injury," and "reconstruction" were used in an electronic search of articles in PubMed, PEDro, CINAHL, and SPORTDiscus databases. Eligible studies included the following criteria: (a) population with ACL injury, (b) a measure of brain activity, and (c) a comparison to the ACL-injured limb (contralateral leg or healthy controls). The search yielded 184 articles from which 24 were included in this review. The effect size of differences in brain activity ranged from small (0.05, ACL-injured vs. noninjured limbs) to large (4.07, ACL-injured vs. healthy control). Moreover, heterogeneity was observed in the methods used to measure brain activity and in the characteristics of the participants included. In conclusion, the evidence summarized in this scoping review supports the notion of functional neuroplastic changes in people with ACL injury. The techniques used to measure brain activity and the presence of possible confounders, as identified and reported in this review, should be considered in future research to increase the level of evidence for functional neuroplasticity following ACL injury.
Beyond forest plots: clinical gestalt and its influence on COPD telemonitoring studies and outcomes review
(BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2019-12-01)
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive chronic condition. Improvements in therapies have resulted in better patient outcomes. The use of technology such as telemonitoring as an additional intervention is aimed at enhancing care and reducing unnecessary acute hospital service use. The influence of verbal communication between health staff and patients to inform decision making regarding use of acute hospital services within telemonitoring studies has not been assessed. METHOD: A systematic overview of published systematic reviews of COPD and telemonitoring was conducted using an a priori protocol to ascertain the impact of verbal communication in telemonitoring studies on health service outcomes such as emergency department attendances, hospitalisation and hospital length of stay. The search of the following electronic databases: Cochrane Library, Medline, Pubmed, CINAHL, Embase, TROVE, Australian Digital Thesis and Proquest International Dissertations and Theses was conducted in 2017 and updated in September 2019. RESULTS: Six systematic reviews were identified. All reviews involved home monitoring of COPD symptoms and biometric data. Included reviews reported 5-28 studies with sample sizes ranging from 310 to 2891 participants. Many studies reported in the systematic reviews were excluded as they were telephone support, cost effectiveness studies, and/or did not report the outcomes of interest for this overview. Irrespective of group assignment, verbal communication with the health or research team did not alter the emergency attendance or hospitalisation outcome. The length of stay was longer for those who were assigned home telemonitoring in the majority of studies. CONCLUSION: This overview of telemonitoring for COPD had small sample sizes and a wide variety of included studies. Communication was not consistent in all included studies. Understanding the context of communication with study participants and the decision-making process for referring patients to various health services needs to be reported in future studies of telemonitoring and COPD.
Factors Affecting the Ability of the Stroke Survivor to Drive Their Own Recovery outside of Therapy during Inpatient Stroke Rehabilitation.
(Hindawi Limited, 2014)
Aim. To explore factors affecting the ability of the stroke survivor to drive their own recovery outside of therapy during inpatient rehabilitation. Method. One-on-one, in-depth interviews with stroke survivors (n = 7) and their main carer (n = 6), along with two focus groups with clinical staff (n = 20). Data was thematically analysed according to group. Results. Stroke survivors perceived "dealing with loss," whilst concurrently "building motivation and hope" for recovery affected their ability to drive their own recovery outside of therapy. In addition, they reported a "lack of opportunities" outside of therapy, with subsequent time described as "dead and wasted." Main carers perceived stroke survivors felt "out of control … at everyone's mercy" and lacked knowledge of "what to do and why" outside of therapy. Clinical staff perceived the stroke survivor's ability to drive their own recovery was limited by the lack of "another place to go" and the "passive rehab culture and environment." Discussion. To enable the stroke survivor to drive their own recovery outside of therapy, there is a need to increase opportunities for practice and promote active engagement. Suggested strategies include building the stroke survivor's motivation and knowledge, creating an enriched environment, and developing daily routines to provide structure outside of therapy time.
Exercise and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy: the need for explicit exercise reporting
BACKGROUND: Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) is the most frequent form of atypical Parkinsonism. Although there is preliminary evidence for the benefits of gait rehabilitation, balance training and oculomotor exercises in PSP, the quality of reporting of exercise therapies appears mixed. The current investigation aims to evaluate the comprehensiveness of reporting of exercise and physical activity interventions in the PSP literature. METHODS: Two independent reviewers used the Consensus on Exercise Reporting Template (CERT) to extract all exercise intervention data from 11 studies included in a systematic review. CERT items covered: 'what' (materials), 'who' (instructor qualifications), 'how' (delivery), 'where' (location), 'when', 'how much' (dosage), 'tailoring' (what, how), and 'how well' (fidelity) exercise delivery complied with the protocol. Each exercise item was scored '1' (adequately reported) or '0' (not adequately reported or unclear). The CERT score was calculated, as well as the percentage of studies that reported each CERT item. RESULTS: The CERT scores ranged from 3 to 12 out of 19. No PSP studies adequately described exercise elements that would allow exact replication of the interventions. Well-described items included exercise equipment, exercise settings, exercise therapy scheduling, frequency and duration. Poorly described items included decision rules for exercise progression, instructor qualifications, exercise adherence, motivation strategies, safety and adverse events associated with exercise therapies. DISCUSSION: The results revealed variability in the reporting of physical therapies for people living with PSP. Future exercise trials need to more comprehensively describe equipment, instructor qualifications, exercise and physical activity type, dosage, setting, individual tailoring of exercises, supervision, adherence, motivation strategies, progression decisions, safety and adverse events. CONCLUSION: Although beneficial for people living with PSP, exercise and physical therapy interventions have been inadequately reported. It is recommended that evidence-based reporting templates be utilised to comprehensively document therapeutic exercise design, delivery and evaluation.
The nature and extent of upper limb associated reactions during walking in people with acquired brain injury
BACKGROUND: Upper limb associated reactions (ARs) are common in people with acquired brain injury (ABI). Despite this, there is no gold-standard outcome measure and no kinematic description of this movement disorder. The aim of this study was to determine the upper limb kinematic variables most frequently affected by ARs in people with ABI compared with a healthy cohort at matched walking speed intention. METHODS: A convenience sample of 36 healthy control adults (HCs) and 42 people with ABI who had upper limb ARs during walking were recruited and underwent assessment of their self-selected walking speed using the criterion-reference three dimensional motion analysis (3DMA) at Epworth Hospital, Melbourne. Shoulder flexion, abduction and rotation, elbow flexion, forearm rotation and wrist flexion were assessed. The mean angle, standard deviation (SD), peak joint angles and total joint angle range of motion (ROM) were calculated for each axis across the gait cycle. On a group level, ANCOVA was used to assess the between-group differences for each upper limb kinematic outcome variable. To quantify abnormality prevalence on an individual participant level, the percentage of ABI participants that were outside of the 95% confidence interval of the HC sample for each variable were calculated. RESULTS: There were significant between-group differences for all elbow and shoulder abduction outcome variables (p < 0.01), most shoulder flexion variables (except for shoulder extension peak), forearm rotation SD and ROM and for wrist flexion ROM. Elbow flexion and shoulder abduction were the axes most frequently affected by ARs. Despite the elbow being the most prevalently affected (38/42, 90%), a large proportion of participants had abnormality, defined as ±1.96 SD of the HC mean, present at the shoulder (32/42, 76%), forearm (20/42, 48%) and wrist joints (10/42, 24%). CONCLUSION: This study provides valuable information on ARs, and highlights the need for clinical assessment of ARs to include all of the major joints of the upper limb. This may inform the development of a criterion-reference outcome measure or classification system specific to ARs.
Systematic review: Pelvic floor muscle training for functional bowel symptoms in inflammatory bowel disease
Background and Aim: Large bowel functional symptoms are common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who are in disease remission. The efficacy of pelvic floor muscle training for symptoms of evacuation difficulty or fecal incontinence is well established in patients without organic bowel disease but is unknown in these patients. This study aimed to systematically evaluate the published evidence in this group of patients. Methods: A systematic review was conducted of articles evaluating pelvic floor muscle training, with or without biofeedback, to improve bowel function in patients with quiescent IBD, including those with an ileoanal pouch. The outcome of interest was improved bowel function measured by bowel diary, patient report, or validated questionnaire in randomized controlled studies, cohort studies, or case series. Results: Two randomized controlled trials, four retrospective case series, and one prospective study met eligibility criteria. Pelvic floor muscle training for patients with quiescent IBD improved symptoms in 51 of 76 (68%) patients with evacuation difficulty and 20 of 25 (80%) patients with fecal incontinence. Pelvic floor muscle training for patients with an ileoanal pouch, prior to stoma closure, did not appear to reduce the risk or severity of fecal incontinence following stoma closure. Studies were limited by small numbers, study design, methodological quality, and lack of long-term follow-up. Conclusion: Pelvic floor muscle training appears to be of therapeutic value in some patients with quiescent IBD and evacuation difficulty or fecal incontinence. The effectiveness of this approach warrants further investigation.
Stratified exercise therapy compared with usual care by physical therapists in patients with knee osteoarthritis: A randomized controlled trial protocol (OCTOPuS study)
OBJECTIVES: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by its heterogeneity, with large differences in clinical characteristics between patients. Therefore, a stratified approach to exercise therapy, whereby patients are allocated to homogeneous subgroups and receive a stratified, subgroup-specific intervention, can be expected to optimize current clinical effects. Recently, we developed and pilot tested a model of stratified exercise therapy based on clinically relevant subgroups of knee OA patients that we previously identified. Based on the promising results, it is timely to evaluate the (cost-)effectiveness of stratified exercise therapy compared with usual, "nonstratified" exercise therapy. METHODS: A pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial including economic and process evaluation, comparing stratified exercise therapy with usual care by physical therapists (PTs) in primary care, in a total of 408 patients with clinically diagnosed knee OA. Eligible physical therapy practices are randomized in a 1:2 ratio to provide the experimental (in 204 patients) or control intervention (in 204 patients), respectively. The experimental intervention is a model of stratified exercise therapy consisting of (a) a stratification algorithm that allocates patients to a "high muscle strength subgroup," "low muscle strength subgroup," or "obesity subgroup" and (b) subgroup-specific, protocolized exercise therapy (with an additional dietary intervention from a dietician for the obesity subgroup only). The control intervention will be usual best practice by PTs (i.e., nonstratified exercise therapy). Our primary outcome measures are knee pain severity (Numeric Rating Scale) and physical functioning (Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score subscale daily living). Measurements will be performed at baseline, 3-month (primary endpoint), 6-month (questionnaires only), and 12-month follow-up, with an additional cost questionnaire at 9 months. Intention-to-treat, multilevel, regression analysis comparing stratified versus usual care will be performed. CONCLUSION: This study will demonstrate whether stratified care provided by primary care PTs is effective and cost-effective compared with usual best practice from PTs.
Dose Articulation in Preclinical and Clinical Stroke Recovery: Refining a Discovery Research Pipeline and Presenting a Scoping Review Protocol
(FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2019-11-06)
Introduction: Despite an increase in the quality of clinical trials in stroke recovery, interventions have failed to markedly impact the trajectory of recovery after stroke. Failure may be due to the lack of consideration for the complexity of dose and its articulation within research trials. Prior to commencing the scoping review, we identified two research gaps to be addressed. Firstly, transparent application of a multidimensional definition of dose to clinical trial phases and secondly, the development of a quality tool to critique the articulation of dose across the pipeline. Building on this, we present the protocol for a scoping review that aims to synthesis what is known about dose articulation in stroke recovery in preclinical and clinical populations, and characterize research designs and statistical approaches used in dose articulation trials, and the associated advantages and disadvantages. Methods: The scoping review will apply Arksey and O'Malley's methodological framework. Two systematic searches that target preclinical and clinical literature will be run in Medline and Embase, which will be complimented by consultation with field experts and hand searching of included trials and relevant reviews. Search results will be imported into Covidence for transparent management. One reviewer will screen all abstracts and titles. Two reviewers will screen full text and a third reviewer included to resolve discrepancies. A standardized data charting form will be used to extract information and appraise the intervention description, risk of bias, and quality of both preclinical and clinical studies. Results will be summarized in tabular and narrative format to inform the development of recommendations for future research. Ethics approval is not required as data used will be secondary and de-identified. Conclusion: Development of a new quality tool to appraise the quality of both preclinical and clinical dose studies may serve to strengthen collaborative efforts between the fields. The findings from this review will advance the use of a discovery pipeline in stroke recovery research to ultimately inform clinical practice.
Impact Of Spinal Cord Injury On Sleep: Current Perspectives
(DOVE MEDICAL PRESS LTD, 2019-01-01)
Sleep disorders are commonly encountered in people living with spinal cord injury (SCI). Primary sleep disorders such as sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), sleep-related movement disorders, circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders, and insomnia disorder are common conditions after SCI but remain under-recognized, underdiagnosed and therefore remain untreated for a majority of patients. Sleep disturbances in people living with SCI are associated with significant impairments of daytime function and quality of life. Previous reviews have described findings related mainly to SDB but have not examined the relationship between other sleep disorders and SCI. This narrative review examines various sleep abnormalities and related functional and physical impairments in people living with SCI. It discusses new evidence pertaining to management, highlights existing limitations in the literature and recommends future directions for research.
Coding OSICS sports injury diagnoses in epidemiological studies: does the background of the coder matter?
(BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2014-04-01)
OBJECTIVE: To compare Orchard Sports Injury Classification System (OSICS-10) sports medicine diagnoses assigned by a clinical and non-clinical coder. DESIGN: Assessment of intercoder agreement. SETTING: Community Australian football. PARTICIPANTS: 1082 standardised injury surveillance records. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Direct comparison of the four-character hierarchical OSICS-10 codes assigned by two independent coders (a sports physician and an epidemiologist). Adjudication by a third coder (biomechanist). RESULTS: The coders agreed on the first character 95% of the time and on the first two characters 86% of the time. They assigned the same four-digit OSICS-10 code for only 46% of the 1082 injuries. The majority of disagreements occurred for the third character; 85% were because one coder assigned a non-specific 'X' code. The sports physician code was deemed correct in 53% of cases and the epidemiologist in 44%. Reasons for disagreement included the physician not using all of the collected information and the epidemiologist lacking specific anatomical knowledge. CONCLUSIONS: Sports injury research requires accurate identification and classification of specific injuries and this study found an overall high level of agreement in coding according to OSICS-10. The fact that the majority of the disagreements occurred for the third OSICS character highlights the fact that increasing complexity and diagnostic specificity in injury coding can result in a loss of reliability and demands a high level of anatomical knowledge. Injury report form details need to reflect this level of complexity and data management teams need to include a broad range of expertise.
What do community football players think about different exercise-training programmes? Implications for the delivery of lower limb injury prevention programmes
(BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2014-04-01)
BACKGROUND: Players are the targeted end-users and beneficiaries of exercise-training programmes implemented during coach-led training sessions, and the success of programmes depends upon their active participation. Two variants of an exercise-training programme were incorporated into the regular training schedules of 40 community Australian Football teams, over two seasons. One variant replicated common training practices, while the second was an evidence-based programme to alter biomechanical and neuromuscular factors related to risk of knee injuries. This paper describes the structure of the implemented programmes and compares players' end-of-season views about the programme variants. METHODS: This study was nested within a larger group-clustered randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of two exercise-training programmes (control and neuromuscular control (NMC)) for preventing knee injuries. A post-season self-report survey, derived from Health Belief Model constructs, included questions to obtain players' views about the benefits and physical challenges of the programme in which they participated. RESULTS: Compared with control players, those who participated in the NMC programme found it to be less physically challenging but more enjoyable and potentially of more benefit. Suggestions from players about potential improvements to the training programme and its future implementation included reducing duration, increasing range of drills/exercises and promoting its injury prevention and other benefits to players. CONCLUSIONS: Players provide valuable feedback about the content and focus of implemented exercise-training programmes, that will directly inform the delivery of similar, or more successful, programmes in the future.
Patterns of comorbidity in community-dwelling older people hospitalised for fall-related injury: a cluster analysis.
(Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2011-08-18)
BACKGROUND: Community-dwelling older people aged 65+ years sustain falls frequently; these can result in physical injuries necessitating medical attention including emergency department care and hospitalisation. Certain health conditions and impairments have been shown to contribute independently to the risk of falling or experiencing a fall injury, suggesting that individuals with these conditions or impairments should be the focus of falls prevention. Since older people commonly have multiple conditions/impairments, knowledge about which conditions/impairments coexist in at-risk individuals would be valuable in the implementation of a targeted prevention approach. The objective of this study was therefore to examine the prevalence and patterns of comorbidity in this population group. METHODS: We analysed hospitalisation data from Victoria, Australia's second most populous state, to estimate the prevalence of comorbidity in patients hospitalised at least once between 2005-6 and 2007-8 for treatment of acute fall-related injuries. In patients with two or more comorbid conditions (multicomorbidity) we used an agglomerative hierarchical clustering method to cluster comorbidity variables and identify constellations of conditions. RESULTS: More than one in four patients had at least one comorbid condition and among patients with comorbidity one in three had multicomorbidity (range 2-7). The prevalence of comorbidity varied by gender, age group, ethnicity and injury type; it was also associated with a significant increase in the average cumulative length of stay per patient. The cluster analysis identified five distinct, biologically plausible clusters of comorbidity: cardiopulmonary/metabolic, neurological, sensory, stroke and cancer. The cardiopulmonary/metabolic cluster was the largest cluster among the clusters identified. CONCLUSIONS: The consequences of comorbidity clustering in terms of falls and/or injury outcomes of hospitalised patients should be investigated by future studies. Our findings have particular relevance for falls prevention strategies, clinical practice and planning of follow-up services for these patients.