Physiotherapy - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 540
Cortical N-acetylaspartate concentrations are impacted in chronic stroke but do not relate to motor impairment: A magnetic resonance spectroscopy study
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measures cerebral metabolite concentrations, which can inform our understanding of the neurobiological processes associated with stroke recovery. Here, we investigated whether metabolite concentrations in primary motor and somatosensory cortices (sensorimotor cortex) are impacted by stroke and relate to upper-extremity motor impairment in 45 individuals with chronic stroke. Cerebral metabolite estimates were adjusted for cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissue composition in the MRS voxel. Upper-extremity motor impairment was indexed with the Fugl-Meyer (FM) scale. N-acetylaspartate (NAA) concentration was reduced bilaterally in stroke participants with right hemisphere lesions (n = 23), relative to right-handed healthy older adults (n = 15; p = .006). Within the entire stroke sample (n = 45) NAA and glutamate/glutamine (GLX) were lower in the ipsilesional sensorimotor cortex, relative to the contralesional cortex (NAA: p < .001; GLX: p = .003). Lower ipsilesional NAA was related to greater extent of corticospinal tract (CST) injury, quantified by a weighted CST lesion load (p = .006). Cortical NAA and GLX concentrations did not relate to the severity of chronic upper-extremity impairment (p > .05), including after a sensitivity analysis imputing missing metabolite data for individuals with large cortical lesions (n = 5). Our results suggest that NAA, a marker of neuronal integrity, is sensitive to stroke-related cortical damage and may provide mechanistic insights into cellular processes of cortical adaptation to stroke. However, cortical MRS metabolites may have limited clinical utility as prospective biomarkers of upper-extremity outcomes in chronic stroke.
Soft soled footwear has limited impact on toddler gait
(PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2021-05-10)
The development of walking in young toddlers is an important motor milestone. Walking patterns can differ widely amongst toddlers, and are characterised by unique biomechanical strategies. This makes comparisons between newly walking toddler's and older children's walking difficult. Little is currently understood regarding the effects of footwear on the gait in newly walking toddlers. A quasi-experimental pre-post study design was used to assess whether spatiotemporal parameters of gait, and in-shoe foot and lower limb kinematics, differed when walking barefoot and in soft-soled footwear in newly walking toddlers. There were 18 toddlers recruited, with 14 undergoing testing. The GAITRite system collected spatial and temporal data. The Vicon camera system collected kinematic data. The testing conditions included barefoot and footwear. Footwear tested was a commercially available soft soled shoe (Bobux XPLORER). Data was extracted directly from the GAITRite system and analysed. Walking in footwear did not change spatial or temporal data, however there were small but significant decreases in hip adduction/abduction range of motion (mean difference (MD) = 1.79°, 95% CI = -3.51 to -0.07, p = 0.04), knee flexion (MD = -7.63°, 95% CI = 2.70 to 12.55, p = 0.01), and knee flexion/extension range of movement (MD = 6.25°, 95% CI = -10.49 to -2.01, p = 0.01), and an increase in subtalar joint eversion (MD = 2.85°, 95% CI = 5.29 to -0.41, p = 0.03). Effect sizes were small for hip and ankle range, peak knee extension, and subtalar joint ranges (d<0.49), medium for knee flexion/extension range (d = 0.75) and large for peak knee flexion (d = 0.87). The magnitude of kinematic changes with soft-soled footwear were small thus the clinical importance of these findings is uncertain. Future longitudinal studies are needed to develop recommendations regarding footwear for newly walking toddlers.
Reliability of a Novel Scoring System for MRI Assessment of Severity in Gluteal Tendinopathy: The Melbourne Hip MRI Score.
(SAGE Publications, 2021-04)
Background: Gluteal tendinopathy is commonly reported in the literature, but there is a need for a validated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based scoring system to grade the severity of the tendinopathy. Purpose: To use intra- and interobserver reliability to validate a new scoring system, the Melbourne Hip MRI (MHIP) score, for assessing the severity of gluteal tendinopathy. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 3. Methods: The MHIP score assesses gluteal tendinopathy according to each 1 of 5 categories: (1) extent of tendon pathology (maximum 5 points); (2) muscle atrophy (maximum 4 points); (3) trochanteric bursitis (maximum 4 points); (4) cortical irregularity (maximum 3 points); and (5) bone marrow edema (maximum 1 point), with an overall range of 0 to 17 (most severe). A total of 41 deidentified MRI scans from 40 patients diagnosed with gluteal tendinopathy (mean baseline age, 57.44 ± 25.26 years; 4 male, 36 female) were read and graded according to MHIP criteria by 2 experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. The radiologists were blinded to previous reports, and the scans were read twice within a 2-month period. Statistical analysis using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to determine intra- and interobserver reliability and mean/range for the MHIP scores. Results: Of a total of 123 readings, the mean MHIP score (±SD) was 3.93 ± 2.24 (range, 0-17 points). The MHIP score demonstrated excellent reliability for determining the severity of gluteal tendinopathy on MRI. The ICC for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.67-0.89) and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.62-0.87), respectively. Conclusion: The MHIP score had excellent intra- and interobserver reliability in scoring gluteal tendinopathy. This score allows gluteal tendon pathology to be graded prior to treatment and to be used for standardized comparisons between results in future research undertaking radiological review of gluteal tendinopathy.
Injury deaths in Australian sport and recreation: Identifying and assessing priorities for prevention
(PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2021-04-22)
INTRODUCTION: Sport and recreation is beneficial for health and wellbeing but comes with a probability of loss, including occasional fatal injuries. Following high-profile injury deaths in Australia, concerns are raised regarding the safety of sport participation. To understand the scale and scope of injury deaths, and identify potential prevention opportunities, the aim of this investigation was to describe the number and nature of fatal injuries in Australian sport and recreation. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of injury deaths reported between 1 July 2000 to 31 December 2019 using data from the National Coronial Information System, Australia. Unintentional deaths with an external cause, where the activity was recorded as sport and exercise during leisure time were included. Drowning deaths were excluded. Presented are the number and % of cases by age, sex, sport, broad cause and annual crude death rate (population). RESULTS: There were 1192 deaths, averaging 63 per year. Deaths were mostly in males (84.4%), with the largest proportion in people aged 15-24 years (23.1%). Wheeled motor (26.9%) and non-motor (16.2%) sports accounted for the highest proportion of cases. The primary mechanism of death was most commonly blunt force (85.4%), followed by piercing/penetrating force (5.0%). The years 2001 and 2005 recorded the highest crude injury death rate (2001, n = 92, 0.47 per 100,000 population; 2005, n = 95, 0.47 per 100,000 population). CONCLUSIONS: On average, there is more than one injury death per week in a sport or recreation setting in Australia. Cases occurred in many sports and recreation activities, including those generally considered to be safe (e.g. individual athletic activities, team ball sports.) Detailed investigation of the coronial recommendations that are present within each case is now needed to understand and identify potential prevention opportunities.
Early Moves: a protocol for a population-based prospective cohort study to establish general movements as an early biomarker of cognitive impairment in infants
(BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2021-01-01)
INTRODUCTION: The current diagnostic pathways for cognitive impairment rarely identify babies at risk before 2 years of age. Very early detection and timely targeted intervention has potential to improve outcomes for these children and support them to reach their full life potential. Early Moves aims to identify early biomarkers, including general movements (GMs), for babies at risk of cognitive impairment, allowing early intervention within critical developmental windows to enable these children to have the best possible start to life. METHOD AND ANALYSIS: Early Moves is a double-masked prospective cohort study that will recruit 3000 term and preterm babies from a secondary care setting. Early Moves will determine the diagnostic value of abnormal GMs (at writhing and fidgety age) for mild, moderate and severe cognitive delay at 2 years measured by the Bayley-4. Parents will use the Baby Moves smartphone application to video their babies' GMs. Trained GMs assessors will be masked to any risk factors and assessors of the primary outcome will be masked to the GMs result. Automated scoring of GMs will be developed through applying machine-based learning to the data and the predictive value for an abnormal GM will be investigated. Screening algorithms for identification of children at risk of cognitive impairment, using the GM assessment (GMA), and routinely collected social and environmental profile data will be developed to allow more accurate prediction of cognitive outcome at 2 years. A cost evaluation for GMA implementation in preparation for national implementation will be undertaken including exploring the relationship between cognitive status and healthcare utilisation, medical costs, health-related quality of life and caregiver burden. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval has been granted by the Medical Research Ethics Committee of Joondalup Health Services and the Health Service Human Research Ethics Committee (1902) of Curtin University (HRE2019-0739). TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12619001422112.
Efficacy of Prehabilitation Including Exercise on Postoperative Outcomes Following Abdominal Cancer Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
(FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2021-03-19)
Objectives: This systematic review set out to identify, evaluate and synthesise the evidence examining the effect of prehabilitation including exercise on postoperative outcomes following abdominal cancer surgery. Methods: Five electronic databases (MEDLINE 1946-2020, EMBASE 1947-2020, CINAHL 1937-2020, PEDro 1999-2020, and Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials 1991-2020) were systematically searched (until August 2020) for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the effects of prehabilitation interventions in patients undergoing abdominal cancer surgery. This review included any form of prehabilitation either unimodal or multimodal that included whole body and/or respiratory exercises as a stand-alone intervention or in addition to other prehabilitation interventions (such as nutrition and psychology) compared to standard care. Results: Twenty-two studies were included in the systematic review and 21 studies in the meta-analysis. There was moderate quality of evidence that multimodal prehabilitation improves pre-operative functional capacity as measured by 6 min walk distance (Mean difference [MD] 33.09 metres, 95% CI 17.69-48.50; p = <0.01) but improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness such as preoperative oxygen consumption at peak exercise (VO2 peak; MD 1.74 mL/kg/min, 95% CI -0.03-3.50; p = 0.05) and anaerobic threshold (AT; MD 1.21 mL/kg/min, 95% CI -0.34-2.76; p = 0.13) were not significant. A reduction in hospital length of stay (MD 3.68 days, 95% CI 0.92-6.44; p = 0.009) was observed but no effect was observed for postoperative complications (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.81, 95% CI 0.55-1.18; p = 0.27), pulmonary complications (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.28-1.01; p = 0.05), hospital re-admission (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.61-1.90; p = 0.81) or postoperative mortality (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.43-2.09, p = 0.90). Conclusion: Multimodal prehabilitation improves preoperative functional capacity with reduction in hospital length of stay. This supports the need for ongoing research on innovative cost-effective prehabilitation approaches, research within large multicentre studies to verify this effect and to explore implementation strategies within clinical practise.
Perseverance with technology-facilitated home-based upper limb practice after stroke: a systematic mixed studies review
BACKGROUND: Technology is being increasingly investigated as an option to allow stroke survivors to exploit their full potential for recovery by facilitating home-based upper limb practice. This review seeks to explore the factors that influence perseverance with technology-facilitated home-based upper limb practice after stroke. METHODS: A systematic mixed studies review with sequential exploratory synthesis was undertaken. Studies investigating adult stroke survivors with upper limb disability undertaking technology-facilitated home-based upper limb practice administered ≥ 3 times/week over a period of ≥ 4 weeks were included. Qualitative outcomes were stroke survivors' and family members' perceptions of their experience utilising technology to facilitate home-based upper limb practice. Quantitative outcomes were adherence and dropouts, as surrogate measures of perseverance. The Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool was used to assess quality of included studies. RESULTS: Forty-two studies were included. Six studies were qualitative and of high quality; 28 studies were quantitative and eight were mixed methods studies, all moderate to low quality. A conceptual framework of perseverance with three stages was formed: (1) getting in the game; (2) sticking with it, and; (3) continuing or moving on. Conditions perceived to influence perseverance, and factors mediating these conditions were identified at each stage. Adherence with prescribed dose ranged from 13 to 140%. Participants were found to be less likely to adhere when prescribed sessions were more frequent (6-7 days/week) or of longer duration (≥ 12 weeks). CONCLUSION: From the mixed methods findings, we propose a framework for perseverance with technology-facilitated home-based upper limb practice. The framework offers opportunities for clinicians and researchers to design strategies targeting factors that influence perseverance with practice, in both the clinical prescription of practice and technology design. To confirm the clinical utility of this framework, further research is required to explore perseverance and the factors influencing perseverance. Registration: PROSPERO CRD42017072799- https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=72799.
A user-friendly clinical practice guideline summary for managing low back pain in South Africa
decisions. However, intended end-users often do not know how to source, appraise, interpret or choose among CPGs. Moreover, it can be confusing when recommendations on the same topic differ among CPGs, in wording, intent and underpinning evidence. Objectives: This article reports on the processes of: (1) identifying current CPGs for acute and subacute low back pain (LBP) to fit the needs of South African physiotherapists, (2) collating and summarising CPG recommendations to produce a user-friendly end-user product and (3) testing the utility of the summary CPG document on South African physiotherapy clinicians to efficiently determine acceptability, appropriateness and feasibility to inform clinical decision-making. Method: An adapted approach was followed by systematically searching online CPG repositories and online databases for LBP CPGs; screening and critically appraising identified CPGs; summarising recommendations from relevant CPGs and organising them into clinical practice activities. Feedback on utility was obtained from 11 physiotherapists. Results: Three high-quality, international CPGs provided 25 recommendations on the assessment and management of acute and subacute LBP relevant to South African physiotherapy practice. They were organised into 10 headings. Physiotherapy user feedback suggested that this document would assist in clinical decision-making. Conclusion: Organised recommendations extracted from multiple, relevant CPGs provide an end-user-friendly resource for physiotherapists treating LBP. Clinical implications: Collated and organised CPG recommendations may effectively assist South African physiotherapists’ clinical decision-making in assessing and managing patients with acute and subacute LBP.
Learning styles of physiotherapists: a systematic scoping review
BACKGROUND: Understanding students' learning styles, and modifying teaching styles and material accordingly, is an essential to delivering quality education. Knowing more about the learning styles of physiotherapy learners will assist educators' planning and delivering of learning activities. The purpose of this scoping review was to explore what is published about physiotherapy learning styles. METHODS: An adapted Arksey and O'Malley framework was applied to undertake this systematic scoping review. Nine electronic databases (CINAHL, BIOMED CENTRAL, Cochrane, Web of Science, PROQUEST, PubMed, OTseeker, Scopus, ERIC) were searched using the keywords: 'learning styles' and 'physiotherapy'. English-language, primary research articles that investigated physiotherapy learners' learning styles were sought. RESULTS: Of 396 potentially-relevant articles, 15 were included in this review. The studies mostly reflected undergraduate students (910 undergraduates, 361 postgraduates, 23 professionals), in developed countries. Nine articles used the Kolb's experiential learning theory (ELT); one study applied Honey and Mumford's approach; two studies used the Gregorc model of cognition and three studies did not specify an underlying theory. Outcome measures included different versions of Kolb's Learning Style Inventory, the visual-aural-read/write-kinesthetic questionnaire, Gregorc style delineator, Felder Silverman's Index of Learning Survey, and Honey and Mumford's Learning Style Questionnaire. The preferred physiotherapy learning styles, according to the ELT, seem to be Converger (learns "hands-on" and applying previously attained knowledge) and Assimilator (gathers and organises information to make the most sense). CONCLUSIONS: Both physiotherapy learners and physiotherapists have specific learning styles of active participation, underpinned with practical examples of theoretical concepts. More research is needed in developing countries, and on postgraduate and professional physiotherapy learners' learning styles. Also, further research should focus on defining and describing physiotherapy learning styles in a way to be used as an industry standard; and developing valid and reliable learning style outcome measures applicable across physiotherapy learners and settings.
Effect of exercise versus cognitive behavioural therapy or no intervention on anxiety, depression, fitness and quality of life in adults with previous methamphetamine dependency: a systematic review
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine (MA) is a highly addictive psychostimulant used by approximately 52 million people worldwide. Chronic MA abuse leads to detrimental physiological and neurological changes, as well as increases in anxiety and depression, and decreases in overall fitness and quality of life. Exercise has been reported to possibly reverse physiological and neurological damage caused by previous MA use, and to reduce anxiety and depression in this population. The aim of this systematic review was to identify, clinically appraise and synthesise the available evidence for the effectiveness of exercise, compared to cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), standard care or no intervention, on decreasing anxiety and depression and improving fitness and quality of life in previous MA users. METHODS: Seven computerised databases were searched from inception to May 2017, namely Scopus, Cochrane Library, PubMed/MEDLINE, PEDro, CINAHL, and ScienceDirect. Search terms included exercise, methamphetamine, fitness measures, depression, anxiety and quality of life. Randomised and non-randomised controlled- or clinical trials and pilot studies, published in English, were considered for inclusion. Methodological quality was critically appraised according to the PEDro scale. Heterogeneity across studies regarding control groups and assessment intervals rendered meta analyses inappropriate for this review and results were thus described narratively using text and tables. RESULTS: Two hundred and fifty-one titles were identified following the initial search, and 14 potentially-relevant titles were selected and the abstracts reviewed. Three studies (two randomised controlled trials and one quasi-experimental pilot) were included, with an average PEDro score of 6.66. Exercise resulted in significantly lower depression and anxiety scores versus CBT (p = 0.001). Balance also significantly improved following exercise versus standard care (p < 0.001); as did vital capacity, hand-grip and one-leg stand with eyes closed. There were significant changes in all subdivisions of the Quality of Life Scale Questionnaire (p < 0.05), except psychology (p = 0.227). CONCLUSIONS: Level II evidence suggests that exercise is effective in reducing anxiety and depression and improving fitness in previous MA users, and Level III-2 evidence suggests that exercise is beneficial for improving quality of life in this population. Overall recovery in previous MA dependents might be significantly enhanced by including exercise in the rehabilitation process. Further research is required to strengthen these conclusions and to inform policy and health systems effectively.
Training programmes to improve evidence uptake and utilisation by physiotherapists: a systematic scoping review
BACKGROUND: Research training programmes are a knowledge translation (KT) intervention which aim to improve research evidence uptake by clinicians. Whilst KT training programmes have been reported to significantly improve evidence uptake by physiotherapists, it is unclear which aspects of training optimally assist KT into physiotherapy practice. The purpose of the review was to establish the body of evidence regarding KT training programmes to improve physiotherapists' use of evidence-based practice (EBP) and clinical practice guidelines (CPG). METHODS: A systematic scoping review was undertaken in line with the adapted Arksey and O'Malley framework. Nine electronic databases (CINAHL, BIOMED CENTRAL, Cochrane, Web of Science, PROQUEST, PUBMED, OTseeker, Scopus, ERIC) were searched. Targeted keywords identified primary research articles of any hierarchy, that described the nature and impact of KT training programmes for physiotherapists. Where systematic reviews were identified, the component primary studies were considered individually for relevance. Critical appraisal was not undertaken due to the nature of a scoping review, and data was reported descriptively. RESULTS: Ten systematic reviews were identified (yielding four relevant primary studies). Five additional primary studies were identified (two randomised controlled trials, two non-randomised controlled trials and one pre-post study) which were not included in the original systematic reviews. This provided nine eligible primary research studies for review. The KT strategies were all multi-faceted. Interactive sessions, didactic sessions, printed material and discussion and feedback were consistently associated with effective outcomes. When KT strategies addressed local barriers to EBP utilisation, there were better success rates for EBP and CPG uptake, irrespective of the outcome measures used. There were no consistent ways of measuring outcome. CONCLUSION: Multi-faceted KT strategies designed to address local barriers to knowledge translation were most effective in improving EBP/ CPG uptake among physiotherapists.