Learning strategies: a synthesis and conceptual model.
AuthorHattie, JAC; Donoghue, GM
Source Titlenpj Science of Learning
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media LLC
AffiliationMelbourne Graduate School of Education
Document TypeJournal Article
CitationsHattie, J. A. C. & Donoghue, G. M. (2016). Learning strategies: a synthesis and conceptual model.. NPJ Sci Learn, 1 (1), pp.16013-. https://doi.org/10.1038/npjscilearn.2016.13.
Access StatusOpen Access
Open Access at PMChttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6380372
The purpose of this article is to explore a model of learning that proposes that various learning strategies are powerful at certain stages in the learning cycle. The model describes three inputs and outcomes (skill, will and thrill), success criteria, three phases of learning (surface, deep and transfer) and an acquiring and consolidation phase within each of the surface and deep phases. A synthesis of 228 meta-analyses led to the identification of the most effective strategies. The results indicate that there is a subset of strategies that are effective, but this effectiveness depends on the phase of the model in which they are implemented. Further, it is best not to run separate sessions on learning strategies but to embed the various strategies within the content of the subject, to be clearer about developing both surface and deep learning, and promoting their associated optimal strategies and to teach the skills of transfer of learning. The article concludes with a discussion of questions raised by the model that need further research.
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