Childhood pneumonia and crowding, bed-sharing and nutrition: a case-control study from The Gambia
AuthorHowie, SRC; Schellenberg, J; Chimah, O; Ideh, RC; Ebruke, BE; Oluwalana, C; Mackenzie, G; Jallow, M; Njie, M; Donkor, S; ...
Source TitleInternational Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
PublisherINT UNION AGAINST TUBERCULOSIS LUNG DISEASE (I U A T L D)
University of Melbourne Author/sMulholland, Kim
Document TypeJournal Article
CitationsHowie, S. R. C., Schellenberg, J., Chimah, O., Ideh, R. C., Ebruke, B. E., Oluwalana, C., Mackenzie, G., Jallow, M., Njie, M., Donkor, S., Dionisio, K. L., Goldberg, G., Fornace, K., Bottomley, C., Hill, P. C., Grant, C. C., Corrah, T., Prentice, A. M., Ezzati, M. ,... Mulholland, K. (2016). Childhood pneumonia and crowding, bed-sharing and nutrition: a case-control study from The Gambia. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TUBERCULOSIS AND LUNG DISEASE, 20 (10), pp.1405-1415. https://doi.org/10.5588/ijtld.15.0993.
Access StatusOpen Access
SETTING: Greater Banjul and Upper River Regions, The Gambia. OBJECTIVE: To investigate tractable social, environmental and nutritional risk factors for childhood pneumonia. DESIGN: A case-control study examining the association of crowding, household air pollution (HAP) and nutritional factors with pneumonia was undertaken in children aged 2-59 months: 458 children with severe pneumonia, defined according to the modified WHO criteria, were compared with 322 children with non-severe pneumonia, and these groups were compared to 801 neighbourhood controls. Controls were matched by age, sex, area and season. RESULTS: Strong evidence was found of an association between bed-sharing with someone with a cough and severe pneumonia (adjusted OR [aOR] 5.1, 95%CI 3.2-8.2, P < 0.001) and non-severe pneumonia (aOR 7.3, 95%CI 4.1-13.1, P < 0.001), with 18% of severe cases estimated to be attributable to this risk factor. Malnutrition and pneumonia had clear evidence of association, which was strongest between severe malnutrition and severe pneumonia (aOR 8.7, 95%CI 4.2-17.8, P < 0.001). No association was found between pneumonia and individual carbon monoxide exposure as a measure of HAP. CONCLUSION: Bed-sharing with someone with a cough is an important risk factor for severe pneumonia, and potentially tractable to intervention, while malnutrition remains an important tractable determinant.
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