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dc.contributor.authorByars, SG
dc.contributor.authorBoomsma, JJ
dc.date.accessioned2021-02-05T01:33:21Z
dc.date.available2021-02-05T01:33:21Z
dc.date.issued2016-01-01
dc.identifierpii: eow023
dc.identifier.citationByars, S. G. & Boomsma, J. J. (2016). Opposite differential risks for autism and schizophrenia based on maternal age, paternal age, and parental age differences. EVOLUTION MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH, 2016 (1), pp.286-298. https://doi.org/10.1093/emph/eow023.
dc.identifier.issn2050-6201
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11343/260441
dc.description.abstractBACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Effects of maternal and paternal age on offspring autism and schizophrenia risks have been studied for over three decades, but inconsistent risks have often been found, precluding well-informed speculation on why these age-related risks might exist. METHODOLOGY: To help clarify this situation we analysed a massive single population sample from Denmark including the full spectrum of autistic and schizophrenic disorders (eliminating between-study confounding), used up to 30 follow-up years, controlled for over 20 potentially confounding factors and interpret the ultimate causation of the observed risk patterns using generally accepted principles of parent-offspring conflict and life-history theory. RESULTS: We evaluated the effects of paternal age, maternal age and parental age difference on offspring mental disorders and found consistently similar risk patterns for related disorders and markedly different patterns between autistic and schizophrenic disorders. Older fathers and mothers both conferred increased risk for autistic but not schizophrenic disorders, but autism risk was reduced in younger parents and offspring of younger mothers had increased risk for many schizophrenic disorders. Risk for most disorders also increased when parents were more dissimilarly aged. Monotonically increasing autism risk is consistent with mutation accumulation as fathers' age, but this explanation is invalid for schizophrenic disorders, which were not related to paternal age and were negatively correlated with maternal age. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: We propose that the observed maternally induced risk patterns ultimately reflect a shifting ancestral life-history trade-off between current and future reproduction, mediated by an initially high but subsequently decreasing tendency to constrain foetal provisioning as women proceed from first to final pregnancy.
dc.languageEnglish
dc.publisherOXFORD UNIV PRESS
dc.titleOpposite differential risks for autism and schizophrenia based on maternal age, paternal age, and parental age differences
dc.typeJournal Article
dc.identifier.doi10.1093/emph/eow023
melbourne.affiliation.departmentMelbourne School of Population and Global Health
melbourne.affiliation.facultyMedicine, Dentistry & Health Sciences
melbourne.source.titleEvolution Medicine and Public Health
melbourne.source.volume2016
melbourne.source.issue1
melbourne.source.pages286-298
dc.rights.licenseCC BY
melbourne.elementsid1107137
melbourne.contributor.authorByars, Sean
dc.identifier.eissn2050-6201
melbourne.accessrightsOpen Access


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