Critical Care - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 134
Psychological well-being of Australian hospital clinical staff during the COVID-19 pandemic
(CSIRO PUBLISHING, 2020-10-09)
ObjectiveThis study assessed the psychological well-being of Australian hospital clinical staff during the COVID-19 pandemic.MethodsAn anonymous online cross-sectional survey was conducted in a large metropolitan tertiary health service located in Melbourne, Australia. The survey was completed by nurses, midwives, doctors and allied health (AH) staff between 15 May and 10 June 2020. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale - 21 items (DASS-21) assessed the psychological well-being of respondents in the previous week.ResultsIn all, 668 people responded to the survey (nurses/midwives, n=391; doctors, n=138; AH staff, n=139). Of these, 108 (16.2%) had direct contact with people with a COVID-19 diagnosis. Approximately one-quarter of respondents reported symptoms of psychological distress. Between 11% (AH staff) and 29% (nurses/midwives) had anxiety scores in the mild to extremely severe ranges. Nurses and midwives had significantly higher anxiety scores than doctors (P<0.001) and AH staff (P<0.001). Direct contact with people with a COVID-19 diagnosis (P<0.001) and being a nurse or midwife (P<0.001) were associated with higher anxiety scores. Higher ratings of the health service's pandemic response and staff support strategies were protective against depression (P<0.001), anxiety (P<0.05) and stress (P<0.001).ConclusionsThe COVID-19 pandemic had a significant effect on the psychological well-being of hospital clinical staff, particularly nurses and midwives. Staff would benefit from (additional) targeted supportive interventions during the current and future outbreaks of infectious diseases.What is known about the topic?The outbreak of COVID-19 is having, and will have, a considerable effect on health services. No Australian data about the effect of COVID-19 on the psychological well-being of hospital clinical staff are available.What does this paper add?Australia healthcare providers have experienced considerable emotional distress during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly nurses and midwives and clinical staff who have had direct contact with people with a COVID-19 diagnosis. In this study, nurses and midwives had significantly higher levels of anxiety, depression and stress during the pandemic than general Australian adult population norms, and significantly more severe anxiety symptoms than medical and AH staff. Despite a lower number of COVID-19 cases and a lower death rate than in other countries, the proportion of Australian hospital clinical staff experiencing distress is similar to that found in other countries.What are the implications for practitioners?Targeted well-being interventions are required to support hospital clinical staff during the current and future outbreaks of infectious diseases and other 'crises' or adverse events.
Controversies in acute kidney injury: conclusions from a Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Conference
(ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2020-08-01)
In 2012, Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) published a guideline on the classification and management of acute kidney injury (AKI). The guideline was derived from evidence available through February 2011. Since then, new evidence has emerged that has important implications for clinical practice in diagnosing and managing AKI. In April of 2019, KDIGO held a controversies conference entitled Acute Kidney Injury with the following goals: determine best practices and areas of uncertainty in treating AKI; review key relevant literature published since the 2012 KDIGO AKI guideline; address ongoing controversial issues; identify new topics or issues to be revisited for the next iteration of the KDIGO AKI guideline; and outline research needed to improve AKI management. Here, we present the findings of this conference and describe key areas that future guidelines may address.
Hemodynamic Response to Fluid Boluses for Hypotension in Children in a Cardiac ICU.
(Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health), 2021-01-01)
OBJECTIVES: To describe the hemodynamic response to fluid boluses for hypotension in children in a cardiac ICU. DESIGN: A prospective, observational study. SETTING: Single-centered cardiac ICU. PATIENTS: Children in a cardiac ICU with hypotension. INTERVENTIONS: Clinician prescribed fluid bolus. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Sixty-four fluid boluses were administered to 52 children. Fluid composition was 4% albumin in 36/64 (56%), 0.9% saline in 18/64 (28%), and cardiopulmonary bypass pump blood in 10/64 (16%). The median volume and duration were 5.0 mL/kg (interquartile range, 4.8-5.4) and 8 minutes (interquartile range, 4-19), respectively. Hypovolemia/low filling pressures was the most common additional indication (25/102 [25%]). Mean arterial pressure response, defined as a 10% increase from baseline, occurred in 42/64 (66%) of all fluid boluses at a median time of 6 minutes (interquartile range, 4-11). Mean arterial pressure responders had a median peak increase in the mean arterial pressure of 15 mm Hg (43 mm Hg [interquartile range, 29-50 mm Hg] to 58 mm Hg [interquartile range, 49-65 mm Hg]) at 17 minutes (interquartile range, 14-24 min) compared with 4 mm Hg (48 mm Hg [interquartile range, 40-51 mm Hg] to 52 mm Hg [interquartile range, 45-56 mm Hg]) at 10 minutes (interquartile range, 3-18 min) in nonresponders. Dissipation of mean arterial pressure response, when defined as a subsequent decrement in mean arterial pressure below 10%, 5%, and 2% increases from baseline, occurred in 28/42 (67%), 18/42 (43%), and 13/42 (31%) of mean arterial pressure responders, respectively. Cardiopulmonary bypass pump blood was strongly associated with peak change in mean arterial pressure from baseline (coefficient 11.0 [95% CI, 4.3-17.7]; p = 0.02). Fifty out of 64 (78%) were receiving a vasoactive agent. However, change in vasoactive inotrope score was not associated with change in mean arterial pressure (coefficient 2.3 [95% CI, -2.5 to -7.2]; p = 0.35). Timing from admission, nor fluid bolus duration, influenced mean arterial pressure response. CONCLUSIONS: In children with hypotension in a cardiac ICU, the median dose and duration of fluid boluses were 5 mL/kg and 8 minutes. Peak response occurred shortly following administration and commonly returned to baseline.
Gender differences in mortality and quality of life after septic shock: A post-hoc analysis of the ARISE study
(W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC, 2020-02-01)
PURPOSE: To assess the impact of gender and pre-menopausal state on short- and long-term outcomes in patients with septic shock. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cohort study of the Australasian Resuscitation in Sepsis Evaluation (ARISE) trial, an international randomized controlled trial comparing early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) to usual care in patients with early septic shock, conducted between October 2008 and April 2014. The primary exposure in this analysis was legal gender and the secondary exposure was pre-menopausal state defined by chronological age (≤ 50 years). RESULTS: 641 (40.3%) of all 1591 ARISE trial participants in the intention-to-treat population were females and overall, 337 (21.2%) (146 females) patients were 50 years of age or younger. After risk-adjustment, we could not identify any survival benefit for female patients at day 90 in the younger (≤50 years) (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR): 0.91 (0.46-1.89), p = .85) nor in the older (>50 years) age-group (aOR: 1.10 (0.81-1.49), p = .56). Similarly, there was no gender-difference in ICU, hospital, 1-year mortality nor quality of life measures. CONCLUSIONS: This post-hoc analysis of a large multi-center trial in early septic shock has shown no short- or long-term survival effect for women overall as well as in the pre-menopausal age-group.
Point-of-care creatinine measurements to predict acute kidney injury
BACKGROUND: Plasma creatinine (Cr) is a marker of kidney function and typically measured once daily. We hypothesized that Cr measured by point-of-care technology early after ICU admission would be a good predictor of acute kidney injury (AKI) the next day in critically ill patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective database audit in a single tertiary ICU database. We included patients with normal first admission Cr (CrF ) and identified a Cr value (CrP ) obtained within 6-12 hours from ICU admission. We used their difference converted into percentage (delta-Cr-%) to predict subsequent AKI (based on Cr and/or need for renal replacement therapy) the next day. We assessed predictive value by calculating area under the receiver characteristic curve (AUC), logistic regression models for AKI with and without delta-Cr-%, and the category-free net reclassifying index (cfNRI). RESULTS: We studied 780 patients. Overall, 70 (9.0%) fulfilled the Cr AKI definition by CrP measurement. On day 2, 148 patients (19.0%) were diagnosed with AKI. AUC (95% CI) for delta-Cr-% to predict AKI on day 2 was 0.82 (95% CI 0.78-0.86), and 0.74 (95% CI 0.69-0.80) when patients with AKI based on the CrP were excluded. Using a cut-off of 17% increment, the positive likelihood ratio (95% CI) for delta-Cr-% to predict AKI was 3.5 (2.9-4.2). The cfNRI was 90.0 (74.9-106.1). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients admitted with normal Cr, early changes in Cr help predict AKI the following day.
A Post Hoc Analysis of Osmotherapy Use in the Erythropoietin in Traumatic Brain Injury Study-Associations With Acute Kidney Injury and Mortality.
(Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health), 2021-04-01)
OBJECTIVES: Mannitol and hypertonic saline are used to treat raised intracerebral pressure in patients with traumatic brain injury, but their possible effects on kidney function and mortality are unknown. DESIGN: A post hoc analysis of the erythropoietin trial in traumatic brain injury (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00987454) including daily data on mannitol and hypertonic saline use. SETTING: Twenty-nine university-affiliated teaching hospitals in seven countries. PATIENTS: A total of 568 patients treated in the ICU for 48 hours without acute kidney injury of whom 43 (7%) received mannitol and 170 (29%) hypertonic saline. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We categorized acute kidney injury stage according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome classification and defined acute kidney injury as any Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome stage-based changes from the admission creatinine. We tested associations between early (first 2 d) mannitol and hypertonic saline and time to acute kidney injury up to ICU discharge and death up to 180 days with Cox regression analysis. Subsequently, acute kidney injury developed more often in patients receiving mannitol (35% vs 10%; p < 0.001) and hypertonic saline (23% vs 10%; p < 0.001). On competing risk analysis including factors associated with acute kidney injury, mannitol (hazard ratio, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2-4.3; p = 0.01), but not hypertonic saline (hazard ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 0.9-2.8; p = 0.08), was independently associated with time to acute kidney injury. In a Cox model for predicting time to death, both the use of mannitol (hazard ratio, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1-4.1; p = 0.03) and hypertonic saline (hazard ratio, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.02-3.2; p = 0.04) were associated with time to death. CONCLUSIONS: In this post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial, the early use of mannitol, but not hypertonic saline, was independently associated with an increase in acute kidney injury. Our findings suggest the need to further evaluate the use and choice of osmotherapy in traumatic brain injury.
Incidence and management of metabolic acidosis with sodium bicarbonate in the ICU: An international observational study
BACKGROUND: Metabolic acidosis is a major complication of critical illness. However, its current epidemiology and its treatment with sodium bicarbonate given to correct metabolic acidosis in the ICU are poorly understood. METHOD: This was an international retrospective observational study in 18 ICUs in Australia, Japan, and Taiwan. Adult patients were consecutively screened, and those with early metabolic acidosis (pH < 7.3 and a Base Excess < -4 mEq/L, within 24-h of ICU admission) were included. Screening continued until 10 patients who received and 10 patients who did not receive sodium bicarbonate in the first 24 h (early bicarbonate therapy) were included at each site. The primary outcome was ICU mortality, and the association between sodium bicarbonate and the clinical outcomes were assessed using regression analysis with generalized linear mixed model. RESULTS: We screened 9437 patients. Of these, 1292 had early metabolic acidosis (14.0%). Early sodium bicarbonate was given to 18.0% (233/1292) of these patients. Dosing, physiological, and clinical outcome data were assessed in 360 patients. The median dose of sodium bicarbonate in the first 24 h was 110 mmol, which was not correlated with bodyweight or the severity of metabolic acidosis. Patients who received early sodium bicarbonate had higher APACHE III scores, lower pH, lower base excess, lower PaCO2, and a higher lactate and received higher doses of vasopressors. After adjusting for confounders, the early administration of sodium bicarbonate was associated with an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 0.85 (95% CI, 0.44 to 1.62) for ICU mortality. In patients with vasopressor dependency, early sodium bicarbonate was associated with higher mean arterial pressure at 6 h and an aOR of 0.52 (95% CI, 0.22 to 1.19) for ICU mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Early metabolic acidosis is common in critically ill patients. Early sodium bicarbonate is administered by clinicians to more severely ill patients but without correction for weight or acidosis severity. Bicarbonate therapy in acidotic vasopressor-dependent patients may be beneficial and warrants further investigation.
A preliminary study of intensivist-performed DVT ultrasound screening in trauma ICU patients (APSIT Study)
BACKGROUND: Multiple screening Duplex ultrasound scans (DUS) are performed in trauma patients at high risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the intensive care unit (ICU). Intensive care physician performed compression ultrasound (IP-CUS) has shown promise as a diagnostic test for DVT in a non-trauma setting. Whether IP-CUS can be used as a screening test in trauma patients is unknown. Our study aimed to assess the agreement between IP-CUS and vascular sonographer performed DUS for proximal lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (PLEDVT) screening in high-risk trauma patients in ICU. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted at the ICU of Alfred Hospital, a major trauma center in Melbourne, Australia, between Feb and Nov 2015. All adult major trauma patients admitted with high risk for DVT were eligible for inclusion. IP-CUS was performed immediately before or after DUS for PLEDVT screening. The paired studies were repeated twice weekly until the DVT diagnosis, death or ICU discharge. Written informed consent from the patient, or person responsible, or procedural authorisation, was obtained. The individuals performing the scans were blinded to the others' results. The agreement analysis was performed using Cohen's Kappa statistics and intraclass correlation coefficient for repeated binary measurements. RESULTS: During the study period, 117 patients had 193 pairs of scans, and 45 (39%) patients had more than one pair of scans. The median age (IQR) was 47 (28-68) years with 77% males, mean (SD) injury severity score 27.5 (9.53), and a median (IQR) ICU length of stay 7 (3.2-11.6) days. There were 16 cases (13.6%) of PLEDVT with an incidence rate of 2.6 (1.6-4.2) cases per 100 patient-days in ICU. The overall agreement was 96.7% (95% CI 94.15-99.33). The Cohen's Kappa between the IP-CUS and DUS was 0.77 (95% CI 0.59-0.95), and the intraclass correlation coefficient for repeated binary measures was 0.75 (95% CI 0.67-0.81). CONCLUSIONS: There is a substantial agreement between IP-CUS and DUS for PLEDVT screening in trauma patients in ICU with high risk for DVT. Large multicentre studies are needed to confirm this finding.
COVID-MATCH65-A prospectively derived clinical decision rule for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2
(PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2020-12-09)
OBJECTIVES: We report on the key clinical predictors of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and present a clinical decision rule that can risk stratify patients for COVID-19. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: A prospective cohort of patients assessed for COVID-19 at a screening clinic in Melbourne, Australia. The primary outcome was a positive COVID-19 test from nasopharyngeal swab. A backwards stepwise logistic regression was used to derive a model of clinical variables predictive of a positive COVID-19 test. Internal validation of the final model was performed using bootstrapped samples and the model scoring derived from the coefficients, with modelling performed for increasing prevalence. RESULTS: Of 4226 patients with suspected COVID-19 who were assessed, 2976 patients underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing (n = 108 SARS-CoV-2 positive) and were used to determine factors associated with a positive COVID-19 test. The 7 features associated with a positive COVID-19 test on multivariable analysis were: COVID-19 patient exposure or international travel, Myalgia/malaise, Anosmia or ageusia, Temperature, Coryza/sore throat, Hypoxia-oxygen saturation < 97%, 65 years or older-summarized in the mnemonic COVID-MATCH65. Internal validation showed an AUC of 0.836. A cut-off of ≥ 1.5 points was associated with a 92.6% sensitivity and 99.5% negative predictive value (NPV) for COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: From the largest prospective outpatient cohort of suspected COVID-19 we define the clinical factors predictive of a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. The subsequent clinical decision rule, COVID-MATCH65, has a high sensitivity and NPV for SARS-CoV-2 and can be employed in the pandemic, adjusted for disease prevalence, to aid COVID-19 risk-assessment and vital testing resource allocation.
Comprehensive Genomic Investigation of Adaptive Mutations Driving the Low-Level Oxacillin Resistance Phenotype in Staphylococcus aureus
(AMER SOC MICROBIOLOGY, 2020-11-01)
Antistaphylococcal penicillins such as oxacillin are the key antibiotics in the treatment of invasive methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) infections; however, mec gene-independent resistance adaptation can cause treatment failure. Despite its clinical relevance, the basis of this phenomenon remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the genomic adaptation to oxacillin at an unprecedented scale using a large collection of 503 clinical mec-negative isolates and 30 in vitro-adapted isolates from independent oxacillin exposures. By combining comparative genomics, evolutionary convergence, and genome-wide association analysis, we found 21 genetic loci associated with low-level oxacillin resistance, underscoring the polygenic nature of this phenotype. Evidence of adaptation was particularly strong for the c-di-AMP signal transduction pathways (gdpP and dacA) and in the clpXP chaperone-protease complex. The role of mutations in gdpP in conferring low-level oxacillin resistance was confirmed by allele-swapping experiments. We found that resistance to oxacillin emerges at high frequency in vitro (median, 2.9 × 10-6; interquartile range [IQR], 1.9 × 10-6 to 3.9 × 10-6), which is consistent with a recurrent minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) increase across the global phylogeny of clinical isolates. Nevertheless, adaptation in clinical isolates appears sporadically, with no stably adapted lineages, suggesting a high fitness cost of resistance, confirmed by growth assessment of mutants in rich media. Our data provide a broader understanding of the emergence and dynamics of oxacillin resistance adaptation in S. aureus and a framework for future surveillance of this clinically important phenomenon.IMPORTANCE The majority of Staphylococcus aureus strains causing human disease are methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and can be treated with antistaphylococcal penicillins (such as oxacillin). While acquisition of the mec gene represents the main resistance mechanism to oxacillin, S. aureus can acquire low-level resistance through adaptive mutations in other genes. In this study, we used genomic approaches to understand the basis of S. aureus adaption to oxacillin and its dynamic at the population level. By combining a genome analysis of clinical isolates from persistent MSSA infections, in vitro selection of oxacillin resistance, and genome-wide association analysis on a large collection of isolates, we identified 21 genes linked to secondary oxacillin resistance. Adaptive mutations in these genes were easy to select when S. aureus was exposed to oxacillin, but they also came at a substantial cost in terms of bacterial fitness, suggesting that this phenotype emerges preferentially in the setting of sustained antibiotic exposure.