Critical Care - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 430
Prognostic utility of inflammation-based biomarkers, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and change in neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, in surgically resected lung cancers
(WOLTERS KLUWER MEDKNOW PUBLICATIONS, 2021-04-01)
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Given the poor overall survival (OR) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates for lung cancers managed with surgical resection, there is a need to identify the prognostic markers that would improve the risk stratification of patients with operable lung cancer to inform treatment decisions. We investigate the prognostic utility of two established inflammation-based scores, the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the change in neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (ΔNLR), throughout the operative period in a prospective cohort of patients with lung cancer who underwent surgical resection. METHODS: Demographic, clinical, and treatment details for 345 patients with lung cancer who underwent surgical resection between 2000 and 2019 at multiple centers across Melbourne, Victoria (Australia), were prospectively collected. Preoperative NLR and ΔNLR were calculated after which Cox univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted for OS and PFS against the known prognostic factors. RESULTS: Both univariate and multivariate analyses showed that preoperative NLR >4.54, as well as day 1 and day 2 postoperative NLR (P < 0.01), was associated with increased risk for postoperative mortality (hazard ratio 1.8; P < 0.01) and PFS (P < 0.05), whereas ΔNLR was not a significant predictor of OS or PFS. CONCLUSION: Elevated NLR among patients with lung cancer who underwent surgical resection was prognostic for poor OS and PFS, whereas ΔNLR was not found to be prognostic for either OS or PFS. Further research may yet reveal a prognostic value for ΔNLR when compared across a greater time period.
Sex differences in illness severity and mortality among adult intensive care patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis
(W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC, 2021-10-01)
PURPOSE: To investigate the association between sex and illness severity and mortality of ICU patients. METHODS: We performed systematic searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE for observational studies of adult ICU patients that explicitly examined the association between sex and illness severity or mortality. We used a random effects model to calculate standardised mean differences in illness severity scores and pooled odds ratios for mortality of women compared to men. RESULTS: We identified 21 studies with 505,138 participants in total (43.1% women). There was substantial heterogeneity among studies. Only two studies were at low risk of bias overall. At ICU admission, there was a pattern of higher illness severity scores among women (standardised mean difference 0.04, 95% CI -0.01-0.09). Women had higher risk-adjusted mortality than men at ICU discharge (OR 1.25 95% CI 1.03-1.50) and 1 year (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02-1.13), however this finding was not robust to sensitivity analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Women tend to have higher illness severity scores at ICU admission. Women also appear to have higher risk-adjusted mortality than men at ICU discharge and at 1 year. Given the heterogeneity and risk of bias in the existing literature, additional studies are needed to confirm or refute these findings.
Risks of recurrent stroke and all serious vascular events after spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage: pooled analyses of two population-based studies
(ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2021-06-01)
BACKGROUND: Patients with stroke due to spontaneous (non-traumatic) intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) are at risk of recurrent ICH, ischaemic stroke, and other serious vascular events. We aimed to analyse these risks in population-based studies and compare them with the risks in RESTART, which assessed antiplatelet therapy after ICH. METHODS: We pooled individual patient data from two prospective, population-based inception cohort studies of all patients with an incident firs-in-a-lifetime ICH in Oxfordshire, England (Oxford Vascular Study; April 1, 2002, to Sept 28, 2018) and Lothian, Scotland, UK (Lothian Audit of the Treatment of Cerebral Haemorrhage; June 1, 2010, to May 31, 2013). We quantified the absolute and relative risks of recurrent ICH, ischaemic stroke, or any serious vascular event (non-fatal stroke, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or vascular death), stratified by ICH location (lobar vs non-lobar) and comorbid atrial fibrillation (AF). We compared pooled event rates with those after allocation to avoid antiplatelet therapy in RESTART. FINDINGS: Among 674 patients (mean age 74·7 years [SD 12·6], 320 [47%] men) with 1553 person-years of follow-up, 46 recurrent ICHs (event rate 3·2 per 100 patient-years, 95% CI 2·0-5·1) and 25 ischaemic strokes (1·7 per 100 patient-years, 0·8-3·3) were reported. Patients with lobar ICH (n=317) had higher risk of recurrent ICH (5·1 per 100 patient-years, 95% CI 3·6-7·2) than patients with non-lobar ICH (n=355; 1·8 per 100 patient-years, 1·0-3·3; hazard ratio [HR] 3·2, 95% CI 1·6-6·3; p=0·0010), but there was no evidence of a difference in the risk of ischaemic stroke (1·8 per 100 patient-years, 1·0-3·2, vs 1·6 per 100 patient-years, 0·6-4·4; HR 1·1, 95% CI 0·5-2·8). Conversely, there was no evidence of a difference in recurrent ICH rate in patients with AF (n=147; 3·3 per 100 patient-years, 95% CI 1·0-10·7) compared with those without (n=526; 3·2 per 100 patient-years, 2·2-4·7; HR 0·9, 95% CI 0·4-2·1), but the risk of ischaemic stroke was higher with AF (6·3 per 100 patient-years, 3·7-10·9, vs 0·7 per 100 patient-years, 0·1-5·6; HR 8·2, 3·3-20·3; p<0·0001), resulting in patients with AF having a higher risk of all serious vascular events than patients without AF (15·5 per 100 patient-years, 10·0-24·1, vs 6·8 per 100 patient-years, 3·6-12·5; HR 1·78, 95% CI 1·16-2·74; p=0·0090). Only for patients with lobar ICH without comorbid AF was the risk of recurrent ICH greater than the risk of ischaemic stroke (5·2 per 100 patient-years, 95% CI 3·6-7·5, vs 0·9 per 100 patient-years, 0·2-4·8; p=0·00034). Comparing data from the pooled population-based studies with that from patients allocated to not receive antiplatelet therapy in RESTART, there was no evidence of a difference in the rate of recurrent ICH (3·5 per 100 patient-years, 95% CI 1·9-6·0, vs 4·4 per 100 patient-years, 2·6-6·1) or ischaemic stroke (3·4 per 100 patient-years, 1·9-5·9, vs 5·3 per 100 patient-years, 3·3-7·2). INTERPRETATION: The risks of recurrent ICH, ischaemic stroke, and all serious vascular events after ICH differ by ICH location and comorbid AF. These data enable risk stratification of patients in clinical practice and ongoing randomised trials. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council, Stroke Association, British Heart Foundation, Wellcome Trust, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre.
Aussie KIDS SAVE LIVES: A position statement from the Australian Resuscitation Council and supported by stakeholders
Every year 25 000 Australians experience a cardiac arrest in our community, but only 12% survive. The faster cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation, known as basic life support (BLS), is commenced, the greater the chance of survival. Currently, only half of the Australian adults are trained in BLS. The Australian Resuscitation Council and key stakeholder organisations believe that the best way to ensure all Australians know how to save a life is by mandating BLS education and training in our schools. This 'Aussie KIDS SAVE LIVES' position statement outlines our strategy to help facilitate the introduction of a programme of regular BLS training into the Australian school curriculum.
Hyperoncotic Albumin Solution in Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy Patients
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of hyperoncotic (20%) human albumin solution (HAS) with outcomes among critically ill patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy (RRT). METHODS: Analysis of the Randomized Evaluation of Normal versus Augmented Level (RENAL) RRT trial data. RESULTS: Of 1,508 patients, 771 (51%) received albumin. Of these, 345 (45%) received 4% HAS only, 155 (20%) received 20% HAS only, and 271 (35%) received both. Patients who received combined 4% and 20% HAS were more severely ill, received more days of RENAL trial therapy and required mechanical ventilation for longer. Mean daily fluid balance was -288 mL (-904 to 261) with 20% HAS only versus 245 mL (-248 to 1,050) with 4% HAS only (p < 0.001). On Cox proportional hazards regression, 20% HAS exposure was not associated with greater 90-day mortality (odds ratio 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.77-1.62; p = 0.55) or longer recovery to RRT independence (sub-hazard ratio 1.04, 95% CI: 0.84-1.30; p = 0.70) compared to those who received 4% HAS only. CONCLUSIONS: RENAL trial patients commonly received albumin in varying concentrations. The administration of 20% HAS was associated with a more negative fluid balance but was not independently associated with increased mortality or RRT dependence when compared to 4% HAS only.
Glycemic lability index and mortality in critically ill patients-A multicenter cohort study
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence indicates a relationship between glycemic variability during intensive care unit (ICU) admission and death. We assessed whether mean glucose, hypoglycemia occurrence, or premorbid glycemic control modified this relationship. METHODS: In this retrospective, multicenter cohort study, we included adult patients admitted to five ICUs in Australia and Sweden with available preadmission glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and three or more glucose readings. We calculated the glycemic lability index (GLI), a measure of glycemic variability, and the time-weighted average blood glucose (TWA-BG) from all glucose readings. We used logistic regression analysis with adjustment for hypoglycemia and admission characteristics to assess the independent association of GLI (above vs. below cohort median) and TWA-BG (above vs. below cohort median) with hospital mortality. RESULTS: Among 2305 patients, 859 (37%) had diabetes, median GLI was 40 [mmol/L]2 /h/week, median TWA-BG was 8.2 mmol/L, 171 (7%) developed hypoglycemia, and 371 (16%) died. The adjusted odds ratio for death was 1.61 (95% CI, 1.19-2.15; P = .002) for GLI above versus below median and 1.06 (95% CI, 0.80-1.41; P = .67) for TWA-BG above versus below median. The relationship between GLI and mortality was not modified by TWA-BG (P [interaction] = 0.66), a history of diabetes (P [interaction] = 0.89) or by HbA1c ≥52 mmol/mol (vs. <52 mmol/mol) (P [interaction] = 0.29). CONCLUSION: In adult patients admitted to an ICU in Sweden and Australia, a high GLI was associated with increased hospital mortality irrespective of the level of mean glycemia, hypoglycemia occurrence, or premorbid glycemic control. These findings support the assessment of interventions to reduce glycemic variability during critical illness.
Outcomes for emergency department patients with suspected and confirmed COVID-19: An analysis of the Australian experience in 2020 (COVED-5)
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to describe the characteristics and outcomes of patients presenting to Australian EDs with suspected and confirmed COVID-19 during 2020, and to determine the predictors of in-hospital death for SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. METHODS: This analysis from the COVED Project presents data from 12 sites across four Australian states for the period from 1 April to 30 November 2020. All adult patients who met local criteria for suspected COVID-19 and underwent testing for SARS-CoV-2 in the ED were eligible for inclusion. Study outcomes were mechanical ventilation and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Among 24 405 eligible ED presentations over the whole study period, 423 tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. During the 'second wave' from 1 July to 30 September 2020, 26 (6%) of 406 SARS-CoV-2 patients received invasive mechanical ventilation, compared to 175 (2%) of the 9024 SARS-CoV-2 negative patients (odds ratio [OR] 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.3-5.2, P < 0.001), and 41 (10%) SARS-CoV-2 positive patients died in hospital compared to 312 (3%) SARS-CoV-2 negative patients (OR 3.2; 95% CI 2.2-4.4, P = 0.001). For SARS-CoV-2 positive patients, the strongest independent predictors of hospital death were age (OR 1.1; 95% CI 1.1-1.1, P < 0.001), higher triage category (OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.3-9.4, P = 0.012), obesity (OR 4.2; 95% CI 1.2-14.3, P = 0.024) and receiving immunosuppressive treatment (OR 8.2; 95% CI 1.8-36.7, P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: ED patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 had higher odds of mechanical ventilation and death in hospital. The strongest predictors of death were age, a higher triage category, obesity and receiving immunosuppressive treatment.
Impact on quantitative fit-test results after application of prophylactic hydrocolloid dressing under N95 respirators.
(Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2021-06-24)
OBJECTIVE: Discomfort and device-related pressure injury (DRPI) caused by N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) are common. The use of prophylactic hydrocolloid dressings is one of the strategies that may improve comfort and reduce DRPI. In this study, we investigated the impact of these dressings on N95 respirator fit. METHODS: We performed a repeat quantitative fit testing through the Respiratory Protection Program on 134 healthcare workers (HCWs), who applied hydrocolloid dressings on the bridge of their nose under the N95 FFRs that they passed the initial fit test with, but reported discomfort with the FFR. RESULTS: With the hydrocolloid dressings in place, the fit-test pass rate for the semirigid cup style (3M 1860) was 94% (108 of 115); for the the vertical flat-fold style (BYD), the pass rate was 85% (44 of 52); for the duckbill style (BSN medical ProShield and Halyard Fluidshield), the pass rate was 81% (87 of 108); and for the 3-panel flat-fold style (3M Aura) N95 FFRs, the pass rate was 100% (3 of 3). There was a statistically significant reduction in the overall fit factors for both the vertical flat-fold and duckbill type N95 respirators after the application of hydrocolloid dressings. CONCLUSIONS: Hydrocolloid dressings are likely to disturb the mask seal for nonrigid-style N95 FFRs, particularly the vertical flat-fold style and the duckbill style N95 FFRs. Given the risk of mask seal disturbance of N95 respirators as shown in this study, we advocate that any HCW requiring the use of prophylactic dressings should undergo repeat quantitative fit testing with the dressing in place prior to using the dressing and mask in combination.
A prospective clinical evaluation of a patient isolation hood during the COVID-19 pandemic.
(Elsevier BV, 2021-05-11)
BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) have frequently become infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 whilst treating patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A variety of novel devices have been proposed to reduce COVID-19 cross-contamination. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was (i) to test whether patients and HCWs thought that a novel patient isolation hood was safe and comfortable and (ii) to obtain COVID-19 infection data of hospital HCWs. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study of 20 patients, entailing HCW/patient questionnaires and safety aspects of prototype isolation hoods. COVID-19 data of HCWs were prospectively collected. Assessment of the hood's safety and practicality and adverse event reporting was carried out. OUTCOME MEASURES: The outcome measures are as follows: questionnaire responses, adverse event reporting, rates of infections in HCWs during the study period (20/6/2020 to 21/7/2020), and COVID-19 infections in HCWs reported until the last recorded diagnosis of COVID-19 in HCWs (20/6/2020 to 27/9/2020). RESULTS: Of the 64 eligible individual HCW surveys, 60 surveys were overall favourable (>75% questions answered in favour of the isolation hood). HCWs were unanimous in perceiving the hood as safe (60/60), preferring its use (56/56), and understanding its potential COVID-19 cross-contamination minimisation (60/60). All eight patients who completed the questionnaire thought the isolation hood helped prevent COVID-19 cross infection and was safe and comfortable. There were no reported patient safety adverse events. The COVID-19 attack rate from 20/6/2020 to 27/9/2020 among registered nurses was as follows: intensive care units (ICUs), 2.2% (3/138); geriatric wards, 13.2% (26/197); and COVID-19 wards, 18.3% (32/175). The COVID-19 attack rate among medical staff was as follows: junior staff, 2.1% (24/932); senior staff, 0.7% (4/607); aged care/rehabilitation, 6.7% (2/30); and all ICU medical staff, 8.6% (3/35). CONCLUSIONS: The isolation hood was preferred to standard care by HCWs and well tolerated by patients, and after the study, isolation hoods became part of standard ICU therapy. There was an association between being an ICU nurse and a low COVID-19 infection rate (no causality implied). ICU HCWs feel safer when treating patients with COVID-19 using an isolation hood.
Therapeutic potential of megadose vitamin C to reverse organ dysfunction in sepsis and COVID-19
Sepsis induced by bacteria or viruses can result in multiorgan dysfunction, which is a major cause of death in intensive care units. Current treatments are only supportive, and there are no treatments that reverse the pathophysiological effects of sepsis. Vitamin C has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant and immune modulatory actions, so it is a rational treatment for sepsis. Here, we summarise data that support the use of megadose vitamin C as a treatment for sepsis and COVID-19. Megadose intravenous sodium ascorbate (150 g per 40 kg over 7 h) dramatically improved the clinical state and cardiovascular, pulmonary, hepatic and renal function and decreased body temperature, in a clinically relevant ovine model of Gram-negative bacteria-induced sepsis. In a critically ill COVID-19 patient, intravenous sodium ascorbate (60 g) restored arterial pressure, improved renal function and increased arterial blood oxygen levels. These findings suggest that megadose vitamin C should be trialled as a treatment for sepsis and COVID-19.