A Systematic Analysis of Host Factors Reveals a Med23-Interferon-lambda l Regulatory Axis against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Replication
AuthorGriffiths, SJ; Koegl, M; Boutell, C; Zenner, HL; Crump, CM; Pica, F; Gonzalez, O; Friedel, CC; Barry, G; Martin, K; ...
Source TitlePLoS Pathogens
PublisherPUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE
University of Melbourne Author/sFazakerley, John
AffiliationVeterinary and Agricultural Sciences
Document TypeJournal Article
CitationsGriffiths, S. J., Koegl, M., Boutell, C., Zenner, H. L., Crump, C. M., Pica, F., Gonzalez, O., Friedel, C. C., Barry, G., Martin, K., Craigon, M. H., Chen, R., Kaza, L. N., Fossum, E., Fazakerley, J. K., Efstathiou, S., Volpi, A., Zimmer, R., Ghazal, P. & Haas, J. (2013). A Systematic Analysis of Host Factors Reveals a Med23-Interferon-lambda l Regulatory Axis against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Replication. PLOS PATHOGENS, 9 (8), https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003514.
Access StatusOpen Access
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic virus causing vesicular oral or genital skin lesions, meningitis and other diseases particularly harmful in immunocompromised individuals. To comprehensively investigate the complex interaction between HSV-1 and its host we combined two genome-scale screens for host factors (HFs) involved in virus replication. A yeast two-hybrid screen for protein interactions and a RNA interference (RNAi) screen with a druggable genome small interfering RNA (siRNA) library confirmed existing and identified novel HFs which functionally influence HSV-1 infection. Bioinformatic analyses found the 358 HFs were enriched for several pathways and multi-protein complexes. Of particular interest was the identification of Med23 as a strongly anti-viral component of the largely pro-viral Mediator complex, which links specific transcription factors to RNA polymerase II. The anti-viral effect of Med23 on HSV-1 replication was confirmed in gain-of-function gene overexpression experiments, and this inhibitory effect was specific to HSV-1, as a range of other viruses including Vaccinia virus and Semliki Forest virus were unaffected by Med23 depletion. We found Med23 significantly upregulated expression of the type III interferon family (IFN-λ) at the mRNA and protein level by directly interacting with the transcription factor IRF7. The synergistic effect of Med23 and IRF7 on IFN-λ induction suggests this is the major transcription factor for IFN-λ expression. Genotypic analysis of patients suffering recurrent orofacial HSV-1 outbreaks, previously shown to be deficient in IFN-λ secretion, found a significant correlation with a single nucleotide polymorphism in the IFN-λ3 (IL28b) promoter strongly linked to Hepatitis C disease and treatment outcome. This paper describes a link between Med23 and IFN-λ, provides evidence for the crucial role of IFN-λ in HSV-1 immune control, and highlights the power of integrative genome-scale approaches to identify HFs critical for disease progression and outcome.
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