Social Work - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 161
Personal barriers to addressing intimate partner abuse: a qualitative meta-synthesis of healthcare practitioners' experiences
BACKGROUND: Healthcare practitioners (HCPs) play a crucial role in recognising, responding to, and supporting female patients experiencing intimate partner abuse (IPA). However, research consistently identifies barriers they perceive prevent them from doing this work effectively. These barriers can be system-based (e.g. lack of time or training) or personal/individual. This review of qualitative evidence aims to synthesise the personal barriers that impact HCPs' responses to IPA. METHODS: Five databases were searched in March 2020. Studies needed to utilise qualitative methods for both data collection and analysis and be published between 2010 and 2020 in order to qualify for inclusion; however, we considered any type of healthcare setting in any country. Article screening, data extraction and methodological appraisal using a modified version of the Critical Appraisal Skills Program checklist for qualitative studies were undertaken by at least two independent reviewers. Data analysis drew on Thomas and Harden's thematic synthesis approach. RESULTS: Twenty-nine studies conducted in 20 countries informed the final review. A variety of HCPs and settings were represented. Three themes were developed that describe the personal barriers experienced by HCPs: I can't interfere (which describes the belief that IPA is a "private matter" and HCPs' fears of causing harm by intervening); I don't have control (highlighting HCPs' frustration when women do not follow their advice); and I won't take responsibility (which illuminates beliefs that addressing IPA should be someone else's job). CONCLUSION: This review highlights the need for training to address personal issues in addition to structural or organisational barriers. Education and training for HCPs needs to: encourage reflection on their own values to reinforce their commitment to addressing IPA; teach HCPs to relinquish the need to control outcomes so that they can adopt an advocacy approach; and support HCPs' trust in the critical role they can play in responding. Future research should explore effective ways to do this within the context of complex healthcare organisations.
Suicide by young Australians, 2006-2015: a cross-sectional analysis of national coronial data
OBJECTIVE: To assess the demographic, social, and clinical characteristics of young Australians who die by suicide. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of National Coronial Information System (NCIS) data. SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: People aged 10-24 years who died by suicide in Australia during 2006-2015. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographic, social, and clinical characteristics of young people who died by suicide; circumstances of death recorded in the NCIS. RESULTS: 3365 young people died of suicide during 2006-2015 (including 2473 boys and men, 73.5%); 1292 people (38.4%) lived in areas of greater socio-economic disadvantage. Free text reports were included in the NCIS for 3027 people (90%), of whom 1237 (40.9%) had diagnosed mental health disorders and 475 (15.7%) had possible mental health disorders. Alcohol consumption near the time of death was detected in 1015 of 3027 cases (33.5%); histories of self-harm were recorded in 940 cases (31.1%) and of illicit substance misuse in 852 (28.1%). Adverse life events included history of abuse or neglect (223, 7.4%), suicide of relatives, friends, or acquaintances (202, 6.7%), and financial difficulties (174, 5.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Three-quarters of the young people who died by suicide were boys or young men, and 57% had diagnosed or possible mental health disorders, suggesting that the mental health and wellbeing of young Australians should be a key target for youth suicide prevention. To reduce the number of youth suicides, it is imperative that prevention strategies target the mental health and psychosocial stressors that lead to suicidal crises in young people.
Anger Dimensions and Mental Health Following a Disaster: Distribution and Implications After a Major Bushfire
Anger is an important dimension of affect and a prominent feature of posttraumatic mental health, but it is commonly overlooked in postdisaster settings. We aimed to examine the distribution and implications of significant anger problems in the aftermath of a natural disaster, via analyses of Beyond Bushfires survey data from 736 residents of rural communities 5 years after the 2009 Black Saturday bushfires in Victoria, Australia. Assessments included the five-item Dimensions of Anger Reaction (DAR-5) scale along with measures of PTSD, depression, and significant mental illness, and indicators of life satisfaction, suicidality, hostile aggressive behavior, and violence exposure. The results indicated that approximately 10% of respondents from areas highly affected by the bushfires scored above the provisional cutoff criteria for significant anger problems on the DAR-5, which was a more than 3-fold increase, OR = 3.26, relative to respondents from areas of low-to-moderate bushfire impact. The rates were higher among women, younger participants, and those who were unemployed, and co-occurred commonly, although not exclusively, with other postdisaster mental health problems. Anger problems were also associated with lower life satisfaction, β = -.31, an 8-fold increase in suicidal ideation, OR = 8.68, and a nearly 13-fold increase in hostile aggressive behavior, OR = 12.98. There were associations with anger problems and violence exposure, which were reduced when controlling for covariates, including probable PTSD. The findings provide evidence indicating that anger is a significant issue for postdisaster mental health and should be considered routinely alongside other posttraumatic mental health issues.
Exploring the knowledge translation of domestic violence research: A literature review
There is growing recognition of the links between knowledge translation, policy and practice, particularly in the domestic violence research area. A literature review applying a systematic approach with a realist lens was the preferred methodology. The review answered the following question: What are the mechanisms of change in research networks which 'work' to support knowledge translation? A search of eight electronic databases for articles published between 1960 and 2018 was completed, with 2,999 records retrieved, 2,869 records excluded and 130 full-text articles screened for final inclusion in the review. The inclusion criteria were purposefully broad, including any study design or data source (including grey literature) with a focus on domestic violence knowledge translation. The analysis of included studies using a realist lens identified the mechanisms of change to support knowledge translation. A disaggregation of the included studies identified five theories focused on the following outcomes: (1) develop key messages, (2) flexible evidence use, (3) strengthen partnerships, (4) capacity building and (5) research utilisation. This review adds to our understanding of knowledge translation of domestic violence research. The mechanisms of change identified may support knowledge translation of research networks. Further research will focus on exploring the potential application of these program theories with a research network.
Psychosocial Care Models for Families of Critically Ill Children in Pediatric Emergency Department Settings: A Scoping Review
PROBLEM: Critical illness in children is a significant and stressful life event for families. Within pediatric emergency department (ED) settings it is acknowledged that these crises are challenging for both the families of these children, and for the clinical staff treating the child. Literature recommends routine care should include an offer to the family to be present with their critically ill child, however there is a lack of clarity regarding specific family care models or evidence-based interventions to guide clinical practice. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Peer reviewed articles written in English, published between 2006 and 2016, proposing or testing psychosocial care models in pediatric (or mixed) emergency settings. SAMPLE: Nine articles met inclusion criteria. RESULTS: Search results showed limited evidence available in the literature at this time. Thematic analysis of article content and proposed model showed strong support for the benefit of family presence, including shifting the family role from passive to active, needing to be inclusive of the psychological impact of critical health events, importance of multidisciplinary education, and the need for additional exploratory and empirical research to evaluate and refine proposed care models. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric emergency health events are challenging for both families and staff, and care models provide staff with a consistent, evidence-informed approach to caring for families in challenging situations. IMPLICATIONS: There is a need to find common ground from specific discipline guidelines into a multidisciplinary team approach for the care of families within emergency care.
Public reassurance following a collective trauma event: a scoping review of the evidence to inform police practice
Purpose: This paper examines the empirical research on police reassurance following a collective trauma event (CTE). Design/methodology/approach: Using a scoping review methodology, this paper sought to establish the extent, range and nature of published literature on policing responses to collective traumatic events, and to identify key features of this form of direct practice. Included papers needed to focus on police responses oeassurance with the public related to events (pre-or post) that could be regarded as collective trauma events by nature or scale. Searches were conducted using the Web of Science, SCOPUS and PsychINFO databases for literature published between January 2000 and December 2019. Findings: Fourteen articles met the inclusion criteria. The key themes identified: (1) measuring the impact of reassurance and community policing; (2) community attitudes to policing and social disorder/critical events; (3) police workforce responses to traumatic events; and (4) interventions to support police to respond to their community. Research limitations/implications: Future research needs to examine the elements that create a robust organisational infrastructure that can withstand the demands of policing in ordinary and extraordinary times. Fundamental to the studies in this review is the relationship between the police agencies and the community. The nature of this relationship and how it can be strengthened to ameliorate the negative impact of CTEs in communities needs further exploration. Originality/value: This paper provides important findings that can inform future reassurance policing practice and research.
Towards the Development of an Intervention to Address Social Determinants of Non-Communicable Disease in Kerala, India: A Mixed Methods Study
In India, cardiovascular disease (CVD), with hypertension as its foremost risk factor, has the highest prevalence rate of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and a rising mortality. Previous research has found a clustering of behavioural and social risks pertaining to NCDs, though the latter are infrequently addressed in public health interventions in India. This paper reaches toward the development of a social intervention to address social determinants of NCD relating to hypertension and diabetes. We used Theory of Change (ToC) as a theoretical approach to programme design. Mixed methods were used, including qualitative interviews with community members (n = 20), Accredited Social Health Activists (n = 6) and health professionals (n = 8), and a stakeholder workshop (n = 5 participants). The recruitment of participants from one local area in Kerala enabled us to map service provision and gain a holistic understanding of how to utilise the existing workforce to target social risk factors. The findings suggest that social interventions need to focus on ensuring health behaviour information reaches all parts of the community, and that those with more social risk factors are identified and supported to engage with treatment. Further research is required to test the resulting intervention model.
Depression literacy among Australians of Chinese-speaking background in Melbourne, Australia.
(Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2010-01-19)
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the knowledge of depression and preference for professional help, medications and treatment methods among Australians of Chinese-speaking background, and the perceptions of this population of the causes of mental illness. METHODS: Adopting a cluster convenience sampling method, the study recruited 200 Chinese-speaking subjects from four major areas in metropolitan Melbourne where many Chinese live. The respondents were presented with a vignette describing an individual with depression and then asked questions to assess their understanding of depression and preference for professional help, medications and treatment methods. A comparative approach was used to compare the findings with those of a previous study of the mental health literacy of Australian and Japanese adults. RESULTS: Compared to the Australian and Japanese samples, a much lower percentage of Chinese-speaking Australians (14%) could correctly identify major depression described in the vignette, and a higher percentage believed that counseling professionals could be helpful. Higher percentages of those who believed that close family members could be helpful were found in the Chinese-speaking Australian and Japanese samples, and these two groups also expressed more uncertainty about the usefulness or harmfulness of certain medications compared to the Australian sample. Higher percentages of respondents in both the Chinese-speaking Australian and the Australian sample considered "lifestyle changes" to be helpful compared to the Japanese sample. In the Chinese-speaking sample, 30%, 17.4%, 33% and 27% of the respondents rated "traditional Chinese medicine doctors," "Chinese herbal medications," "taking Chinese nutritional foods/supplements" and "qiqong" as helpful. Many perceived "changing fungshui" and "traditional Chinese worship" to be harmful. Regarding the perception of causes of mental illness, items related to psychosocial perspectives including "life stress" and "interpersonal conflict" were rated highly by the respondents, whereas traditional beliefs including "punishment for misdeeds conducted by ancestors" and "demon possession" had the lowest ratings. CONCLUSIONS: Campaigns to increase the mental health literacy of Chinese-speaking Australians are needed. The above-mentioned socially and culturally driven beliefs need to be taken into consideration in the development of culturally relevant education programs.
Suicidal ideation and attempts among men who inject drugs in Delhi, India: psychological and social risk factors
(SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, 2014-09-01)
Objective: Suicide is major public health problem in India. The objective of the analyses presented in this paper is to examine depressive and anxiety symptoms and socio-demographic indicators as correlates of suicidal ideation and attempts among people who inject drugs (PWID), a high-risk group for suicide. Method: We analysed data collected in April–May of 2012 from a community-based sample of 420 PWID in Delhi using time location sampling. Self-report symptom scales were used to measure the severity of symptoms of depression (PHQ-9) and anxiety (GAD-2) within the preceding 2 weeks. We assessed the presence of suicidal thoughts within the past 12 months. Results: Depressive and anxiety symptoms were associated with suicidal ideation, as were a range of social stressors including poor physical health, length of injecting drug use, housing insecurity, and experiences of violence and sexual abuse. However, depressive and anxiety symptoms were not associated with suicide attempts. Factors associated with suicide attempts among ideators were housing insecurity and relational dynamics including a poor relationship with family and, interestingly, being married. Conclusion: Suicide prevention interventions among this population should address not only individual mental health and addiction support needs but also the overwhelmingly poor psychosocial circumstances of this group.