Melbourne Dental School - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 390
Reported orofacial adverse effects of COVID-19 vaccines: The knowns and the unknowns
INTRODUCTION: Adverse events associated with vaccine administration can manifest in the oral cavity and orofacial region. Hence, the aim of this study was to compare the orofacial adverse effects of two recently authorised COVID-19 vaccines, namely BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273. METHODS: Publicly available data on BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 vaccines were accessed from the relevant regulatory authorities in the United States, Canada, European Union and United Kingdom. Both patient/recipient information and healthcare professional fact sheets for each of these drugs were manually searched to find their orofacial adverse effects. RESULTS: Adverse events affecting the orofacial region were reported for both vaccines. These were rare and included acute peripheral facial paralysis (Bell's palsy), facial swelling, and swelling of the lips, face or tongue associated with anaphylaxis. There was heterogeneity in the acknowledgement of vaccine-related adverse events in North America compared with Europe. CONCLUSION: Globally, there are inconsistencies in the description of adverse effects presenting in the orofacial region of the COVID-19 vaccines BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273. We believe that awareness of these orofacial manifestations will improve recognition, management and reporting of vaccine-related adverse effects.
Expression Profile of Stemness Markers CD138, Nestin and Alpha-SMA in Ameloblastic Tumours
Ameloblastic carcinoma is a rare malignant odontogenic neoplasm with a poor prognosis. It can arise de novo or from a pre-existing ameloblastoma. Research into stemness marker expression in ameloblastic tumours is lacking. This study aimed to explore the immunohistochemical expression of stemness markers nestin, CD138, and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) for the characterisation of ameloblastic tumours. Six cases of ameloblastoma and four cases of ameloblastic carcinoma were assessed, including one case of ameloblastic carcinoma arising from desmoplastic ameloblastoma. In all tumour samples, CD138 was positive, whilst alpha-SMA was negative. Nestin was negative in all but one tumour sample. Conversely, the presence or absence of these markers varied in stroma samples. Nestin was observed in one ameloblastic carcinoma stroma sample, whilst CD138 was positive in one ameloblastoma case, one desmoplastic ameloblastoma case, and in two ameloblastic carcinoma stroma samples. Finally, alpha-SMA was found positive only in the desmoplastic ameloblastoma stroma sample. Our results suggest nestin expression to be an indicator for ameloblastic carcinoma, and CD138 and alpha-SMA to be promising biomarkers for the malignant transformation of ameloblastoma. Our data showed that nestin, CD138, and alpha-SMA are novel biomarkers for a better understanding of the origins and behaviour of ameloblastic tumours.
Special care dentistry perception among dentists in Jakarta: An online survey study
(PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2021-04-07)
Special Care Dentistry (SCD) or Special Needs Dentistry is a branch of dentistry concerned with the oral health of people with a variety of medical conditions or limitations that require more than routine delivery of care. There were reports on oral status of special care patients and special interest group for SCD dentists in Indonesia has existed. However, there was not perception report on SCD amongst dentists in Jakarta. This paper will describe the perception of dentists in Jakarta towards SCD. A cross-sectional questionnaire, translated and cross adapted to Indonesian, was distributed online through Whatsapp to dentists registered in Jakarta late 2019. Quantitative data was analyzed using statistical software for proportion and correlation using Chi-Square test. The questionnaire explored dentists' perception towards SCD. A total of 250 dentists participated in this study, of them 173 general practitioners and 77 specialist dentists. Most respondents reported that they did not have SCD component during undergraduate dental school and did not provide treatment to patients with special needs in their clinical practice. Most respondents have poor perception of SCD, however, most of the respondents showed motivation and interest towards SCD training. Dentists in Jakarta involved in this study had poor perception of SCD. More efforts should be performed to improve SCD education and awareness.
Dental conditions associated with preventable hospital admissions in Australia: a systematic literature review
BACKGROUND: Over the past two decades, there has been a decrease in dental diseases in Australia; however, the number of preventable dental hospital admissions has not diminished. This review reports on the factors associated with preventable dental hospital admissions in Australia. METHODS: A search of five databases was conducted using Medical subject headings/Emtree terms and Index terms. All original studies, published between January1965 and March 2018 in English, based on the Australian population, and examining the prevalence of oral conditions as a cause for emergency department presentations and hospital admissions were included. The mixed method appraisal tool was used to evaluate the included studies. RESULTS: Eleven cross-sectional studies met inclusion and exclusion criteria. All the studies, except one from Tasmania, were from Western Australia. The most common reasons for preventable dental hospital admissions were dental caries, followed by embedded or impacted teeth. Malignant neoplasms were reported as main causes of preventable dental hospital admissions in the older population. CONCLUSIONS: Most studies on preventable dental hospital admissions were from one Australian state (Western Australia). Further research is required to determine the national prevalence and incidence of preventable dental hospital admissions. A periodic audit of preventable dental hospital admission data is needed for delivery of a fair and effective dental services.
Chronic periodontitis and smoking Prevalence and dose-response relationship
(SAUDI MED J, 2016-08-01)
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and dose-response relationship of chronic periodontitis among smokers in Pakistan. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study among participants seeking dental care in Karachi Medical and Dental College, Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 443 participants with a mean age of 44.3 (±6.5) participated in the study from April 2011 to December 2011. Males comprised 64.7%, and females comprised 35.2%. Participants were interviewed on social demographics and oral habits. Participants with shallow pockets (3.5-5.5 mm) and deep pockets (greater than 5.5 mm) were considered suffering from chronic periodontitis. The characteristics of participants were assessed using frequency distribution for categorical variables and mean (standard deviation) for continuous variables. RESULTS: Among 443 participants, smokers were distributed as 55.1% and non-smokers as 44.9%. Smoking was found to be significantly related to young adults (p less than 0.007), male gender (p less than 0.001), and lower education level (p less than 0.01). Overall prevalence of chronic periodontitis among smokers was estimated at 81.6%. Heavy smoking was found to have significantly high prevalence (p less than 0.001) and severity (p less than 0.001) of periodontitis as compared with moderate and light smokers. The multivariate unadjusted model depicted 3.5 times higher risk of chronic periodontitis among smokers (p less than 0.001). CONCLUSION: Chronic periodontitis had a high prevalence among smokers. Heavy smoking was found to have a higher risk for having periodontitis.
Prevalence of chronic periodontitis in an obese population: a preliminary study
BACKGROUND: Chronic periodontitis (CP) is a global public health issue. Studies have suggested CP could be linked to obesity due to their similar pathophysiological pathway. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of CP and to assess the predictors for CP among the obese Malaysian population. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study on obese participants. Obesity is defined as an individual who has Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥ 27.5 kg/m(2). A convenience sampling method was used. A total of 165 paricipants were recruited. This study involved answering questionnaires, obtaining biometric and clinical measurements of Visible plaque index (VPI), Gingival bleeding index (GBI), Probing pocket depth (PPD) and Clinical attachment loss (CAL). Data analysis was carried out using SPSS statistical software (SPSS Inc., version 20, US). RESULTS: A total of 165 participants; 67 (40.6%) males and 98 (59.4%) females participated in the study. Mean age of the participants was 43.9 (± 8.9). The prevalence of CP among the obese population was found to be 73.9%. Out of this, 43 and 55% were categorised as moderate and severe CP respectively. Around 64% of participants had sites with CAL ≥ 4 mm and participants with sites with PPD ≥ 4 mm were reported to be 25%. Around 83% of the participants had sites with GBI ≥ 30 and 92% of participants had sites with VPI ≥ 20%. GBI and VPI were found to have significantly higher odds for CP. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of CP was high among obese Malaysians. GBI and VPI were potential predictors for CP in this obese population.
Bayesian Modeling and Chronological Precision for Polynesian Settlement of Tonga
(PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2015-03-23)
First settlement of Polynesia, and population expansion throughout the ancestral Polynesian homeland are foundation events for global history. A precise chronology is paramount to informed archaeological interpretation of these events and their consequences. Recently applied chronometric hygiene protocols excluding radiocarbon dates on wood charcoal without species identification all but eliminates this chronology as it has been built for the Kingdom of Tonga, the initial islands to be settled in Polynesia. In this paper we re-examine and redevelop this chronology through application of Bayesian models to the questioned suite of radiocarbon dates, but also incorporating short-lived wood charcoal dates from archived samples and high precision U/Th dates on coral artifacts. These models provide generation level precision allowing us to track population migration from first Lapita occupation on the island of Tongatapu through Tonga's central and northern island groups. They further illustrate an exceptionally short duration for the initial colonizing Lapita phase and a somewhat abrupt transition to ancestral Polynesian society as it is currently defined.
The Neolithic Demographic Transition in Europe: Correlation with Juvenility Index Supports Interpretation of the Summed Calibrated Radiocarbon Date Probability Distribution (SCDPD) as a Valid Demographic Proxy
(PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2014-08-25)
Analysis of the proportion of immature skeletons recovered from European prehistoric cemeteries has shown that the transition to agriculture after 9000 BP triggered a long-term increase in human fertility. Here we compare the largest analysis of European cemeteries to date with an independent line of evidence, the summed calibrated date probability distribution of radiocarbon dates (SCDPD) from archaeological sites. Our cemetery reanalysis confirms increased growth rates after the introduction of agriculture; the radiocarbon analysis also shows this pattern, and a significant correlation between both lines of evidence confirms the demographic validity of SCDPDs. We analyze the areal extent of Neolithic enclosures and demographic data from ethnographically known farming and foraging societies and we estimate differences in population levels at individual sites. We find little effect on the overall shape and precision of the SCDPD and we observe a small increase in the correlation with the cemetery trends. The SCDPD analysis supports the hypothesis that the transition to agriculture dramatically increased demographic growth, but it was followed within centuries by a general pattern of collapse even after accounting for higher settlement densities during the Neolithic. The study supports the unique contribution of SCDPDs as a valid demographic proxy for the demographic patterns associated with early agriculture.
Regional population collapse followed initial agriculture booms in mid-Holocene Europe
(NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2013-10-01)
Following its initial arrival in SE Europe 8,500 years ago agriculture spread throughout the continent, changing food production and consumption patterns and increasing population densities. Here we show that, in contrast to the steady population growth usually assumed, the introduction of agriculture into Europe was followed by a boom-and-bust pattern in the density of regional populations. We demonstrate that summed calibrated radiocarbon date distributions and simulation can be used to test the significance of these demographic booms and busts in the context of uncertainty in the radiocarbon date calibration curve and archaeological sampling. We report these results for Central and Northwest Europe between 8,000 and 4,000 cal. BP and investigate the relationship between these patterns and climate. However, we find no evidence to support a relationship. Our results thus suggest that the demographic patterns may have arisen from endogenous causes, although this remains speculative.
Functional analysis and generalized treatment of disruptive behavior during dental exams.
Patient disruption during dental visits can impede treatment and may result in invasive approaches to care. The current study evaluated the efficacy of graduated exposure with and without extinction to decrease disruption during dental treatment for 4 young men with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Modified functional analyses confirmed that disruption was maintained by escape from dental demands for all four young men. Initial treatment consisted of graduated exposure, whereby exam steps were initially removed and then gradually reintroduced as disruption remained low; throughout this phase, disruption resulted in a break from the exam. During the subsequent treatment phase, graduated exposure procedures continued and extinction for disruption was added. Graduated exposure alone did not result in sufficient treatment effects; however, the addition of extinction resulted in greater reductions in disruption and increases in exam completion for all 4 young men, and treatment effects generalized to a dental clinic setting.
Fidelity of motivational interviewing with families in high-caries-risk children
OBJECTIVES: Motivational interviewing (MI) is a promising behavioural intervention for prevention of dental caries in children. Few studies have reported on fidelity of MI delivered in dental settings. The aim of this paper is to explore the fidelity of implementing MI in a clinical dental practice setting, as part of an intervention study investigating caries-preventive effects of MI delivered to high-caries-risk children and their primary caregivers. METHODS: Three oral health therapy clinicians trained in MI (counsellors) provided MI to high-caries-risk children and their primary caregivers. All MI sessions (n = 34) were audio-recorded and analysed using the MI Treatment Integrity code 4.2.1. Qualitative analysis of counsellor self-reflections identified barriers to MI delivery. RESULTS: All counsellors were found to adhere to the MI process and demonstrated fair to good MI proficiency for global scores, with a mean (95% CI) of 3.3 (3.1-3.4) recorded for technical scores and 3.6 (3.5-3.8) for relational scores. The mean (95% CI) per cent complex reflections was 23% (19.4-27.1) and the mean reflection:question ratio was 0.7 (0.6-0.9). No significant differences were observed between counsellors for MI proficiency. Cultural barriers, environmental distractions, participant dental anxiety and counsellor tendency towards prescriptive advice-giving were identified by counsellors as hindrances to effective MI. CONCLUSIONS: Motivational interviewing is a skill which requires multifaceted training, practice and mentoring to meet accepted proficiency thresholds. Monitoring of MI using a validated tool is essential to ensure delivery as intended and accurately attribute outcomes to the intervention. Dental organizations intending to implement MI for caries prevention should be aware of the demands on time and resources required to deliver proficient MI and monitor fidelity.
Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw: Analysing the range of implicated drugs from the Australian database of adverse event notifications
AIMS: Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) is an uncommon but potentially debilitating condition, characterised by nonhealing jawbone, with or without mucosal exposure, in the presence of certain drugs. Those already strongly associated with MRONJ include antiresorptives denosumab and bisphosphonates; however, a growing range of other non-antiresorptive drugs is implicated. The aim of this study was to analyse all case reports of MRONJ submitted to the publicly available Database of Adverse Event Notification from the Therapeutic Goods Administration in Australia. METHODS: The Therapeutic Goods Administration was contacted on 6 January 2020 and asked for all reports containing the words "osteonecrosis of the jaw". This was provided in a spreadsheet of de-identified reports received from commencement of the database in 1971 until 1 October 2019. RESULTS: The drugs implicated in the 419 cases were divided by established drugs with MRONJ and secondary drugs that possibly contribute to MRONJ development. While the majority of cases were associated with denosumab or bisphosphonates (n = 405), there were 14 reports where secondary agents that directly or indirectly affect bone turnover, were also implicated. Some of these secondary drugs, including adalimumab, etanercept, methotrexate and rituximab have previously been associated with MRONJ in published case reports. CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to the sparse but growing literature associating an increasing number of drugs with MRONJ, and underscores the importance of considering all possible drugs that elevate a patient's MRONJ risk.