Melbourne Dental School - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 160
Anti-inflammatory drug-eluting implant model system to prevent wear particle-induced periprosthetic osteolysis
(DOVE MEDICAL PRESS LTD, 2019-01-01)
Background: Aseptic loosening, as a consequence of an extended inflammatory reaction induced by wear particles, has been classified as one of the most common complications of total joint replacement (TJR). Despite its high incidence, no therapeutical approach has yet been found to prevent aseptic loosening, leaving revision as only effective treatment. The local delivery of anti-inflammatory drugs to modulate wear-induced inflammation has been regarded as a potential therapeutical approach to prevent aseptic-loosening. Methods: In this context, we developed and characterized anti-inflammatory drug-eluting TiO2 surfaces, using nanoparticles as a model for larger surfaces. The eluting surfaces were obtained by conjugating dexamethasone to carboxyl-functionalized TiO2 particles, obtained by using either silane agents with amino or mercapto moieties. Results: Zeta potential measurements, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and drug release results suggest that dexamethasone was successfully loaded onto the TiO2 particles. Release was pH dependent and greater amounts of drug were observed from amino route functionalized surfaces. The model-system was then tested for its cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory properties in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Dexamethasone released from amino route functionalized surfaces TiO2 particles was able to decrease LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and TNF-a production similarly to pure DEX at the same concentration; DEX released from mercapto route functionalized surfaces was at a too low concentration to be effective. Conclusion: Dexamethasone released from amino functionalized titanium can offer the possibility of preventing asepting loosening of joint replacement devices.
Mineralisation within human tooth cementum identified by secondary ion mass spectrometry
(ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, 2020-06-01)
Life-history parameters such as pregnancies, skeletal trauma, and renal disease have previously been identified from hypomineralised growth layers (incremental lines) of acellular extrinsic fibre cementum (AEFC) using optical microscopy. We show that the precise periodicity of these growth layers remains poorly understood, so life history parameters for putative cementum deposition periodicity cannot be rigorously calculated. In an attempt to better understand the underlying formation processes, our study investigates whether or not mineralisation of AEFC incremental lines clearly indicate life history parameters in an ideal sample, using light microscopy, electron microscopy, and Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Based on our results we reject the possibility of accurate estimation of the distribution of mineralisation of tooth cementum using light and scanning electron microscopy alone. On the other hand, we detect an apparent drop in calcium in the AEFC of a patient with six documented full-term pregnancies, using ToF SIMS. We conclude that although ToF-SIMS analysis holds great promise for increasing our knowledge of cementum composition, far more caution is required by researchers linking observed lines in this tissue to underlying causal life history mechanisms and explanations.
The Modelled Population Obesity-Related Health Benefits of Reducing Consumption of Discretionary Foods in Australia.
(MDPI AG, 2020-02-28)
Over one third of Australians' daily energy intake is from discretionary foods and drinks. While many health promotion efforts seek to limit discretionary food intake, the population health impact of reductions in the consumption of different types of discretionary foods (e.g., sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), confectionery, sweet biscuits) has not been quantified. This study estimated the potential reductions in body weight, obesity-related disease incidence, and healthcare cost savings associated with consumption of one less serving per week of different discretionary foods. Reductions in the different types of discretionary food were modelled individually to estimate the impact on energy consumption and population body weight by 5-year age and sex groups. It was assumed that one serving of discretionary food each week was replaced with either a serving of fruit or popcorn, and a serving (375 mL) of SSBs was replaced with coffee, tea, or milk. Proportional multi-state multiple-cohort Markov modelling estimated likely resultant health adjusted life years (HALYs) gained and healthcare costs saved over the lifetime of the 2010 Australian population. A reduction of one serving of SSBs (375 mL) had the greatest potential impact in terms of weight reduction, particularly in ages 19-24 years (mean 0.31 kg, 95% UI: 0.23 kg to 0.37 kg) and overall healthcare cost savings of AUD 793.4 million (95% UI: 589.1 M to 976.1 M). A decrease of one serving of sweet biscuits had the second largest potential impact on weight change overall, with healthcare cost savings of $640.7 M (95% CI: $402.6 M to $885.8 M) and the largest potential weight reduction amongst those aged 75 years and over (mean 0.21 kg, 95% UI: 0.14 kg to 0.27 kg). The results demonstrate that small reductions in discretionary food consumption are likely to have substantial health benefits at the population level. Moreover, the study highlights that policy responses to improve population diets may need to be tailored to target different types of foods for different population groups.
Longitudinal study of health, disease and access to care in rural Victoria: the Crossroads-II study: methods
(BIOMED CENTRAL LTD, 2018-05-30)
BACKGROUND: High quality, contemporary data regarding patterns of chronic disease is essential for planning by health services, policy makers and local governments, but surprisingly scarce, including in rural Australia. This dearth of data occurs despite the recognition that rural Australians live with high rates of ill health, poor health behaviours and restricted access to health services. Crossroads-II is set in the Goulburn Valley, a rural region of Victoria, Australia 100-300 km north of metropolitan Melbourne. It is primarily an irrigated agricultural area. The aim of the study is to identify changes in the prevalence of key chronic health conditions including the extent of undiagnosed and undermanaged disease, and association with access to care, over a 15 year period. METHODS/DESIGN: This study is a 15 year follow up from the 2000-2003 Crossroads-I study (2376 households participated). Crossroads-II includes a similar face to face household survey of 3600 randomly selected households across four towns of sizes 6300 to 49,800 (50% sampled in the larger town with the remainder sampled equally from the three smaller towns). Self-reported health, health behaviour and health service usage information is verified and supplemented in a nested sub-study of 900 randomly selected adult participants in 'clinics' involving a range of additional questionnaires and biophysical measurements. The study is expected to run from October 2016 to December 2018. DISCUSSION: Besides providing epidemiological and health service utilisation information relating to different diseases and their risk factors in towns of different sizes, the results will be used to develop a composite measure of health service access. The importance of access to health services will be investigated by assessing the correlation of this measure with rates of undiagnosed and undermanaged disease at the mesh block level. Results will be shared with partner organisations to inform service planning and interventions to improve health outcomes for local people.
The association of fecal microbiota and fecal, blood serum and urine metabolites in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome
(Springer Verlag, 2017-01-01)
Introduction: The human gut microbiota has the ability to modulate host metabolism. Metabolic profiling of the microbiota and the host biofluids may determine associations significant of a host–microbe relationship. Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a long-term disorder of fatigue that is poorly understood, but has been linked to gut problems and altered microbiota. Objectives: Find changes in fecal microbiota and metabolites in ME/CFS and determine their association with blood serum and urine metabolites. Methods: A workflow was developed that correlates microbial counts with fecal, blood serum and urine metabolites quantitated by high-throughput 1H NMR spectroscopy. The study consists of thirty-four females with ME/CFS (34.9 ± 1.8 SE years old) and twenty-five non-ME/CFS female (33.0 ± 1.6 SE years old). Results: The workflow was validated using the non-ME/CFS cohort where fecal short chain fatty acids (SCFA) were associated with serum and urine metabolites indicative of host metabolism changes enacted by SCFA. In the ME/CFS cohort a decrease in fecal lactate and an increase in fecal butyrate, isovalerate and valerate were observed along with an increase in Clostridium spp. and a decrease in Bacteroides spp. These differences were consistent with an increase in microbial fermentation of fiber and amino acids to produce SCFA in the gut of ME/CFS patients. Decreased fecal amino acids positively correlated with substrates of gluconeogenesis and purine synthesis in the serum of ME/CFS patients. Conclusion: Increased production of SCFA by microbial fermentation in the gut of ME/CFS patients may be associated with deleterious effects on the host energy metabolism.
A twin study of body mass index and dental caries in childhood.
(Nature Publishing Group, 2020-01-17)
Sub-optimal nutrition and dental caries are both common with significant short and long-term implications for child health and development. We applied twin statistical methods to explore the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and dental caries. We measured BMI at 18 months and six years of age and cumulative dental caries experience at six years in 344 twin children. Dental caries in primary teeth was categorised into 'any' or 'advanced' and BMI was analysed as both a continuous and categorical variable. Statistical analyses included multiple logistic regression using generalized estimating equations and within/between-pair analyses. There was no association between BMI and 'any' dental caries experience at either time-point, neither overall nor in within/between pair analyses. However, 'advanced' dental caries at six years was associated with a within-pair difference in BMI of -0.55 kg/m2 (95% CI -1.00, -0.11, p = 0.015). A within-pair increase of 1 kg/m2 in BMI was associated with a lower within-pair risk of advanced dental caries (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.52, 0.90, p = 0.007). These findings reveal a possible causal relationship between lower BMI and dental caries. As dental outcomes were only measured at one time point, the direction of this potentially causal relationship is unclear.
Antibiotic prophylaxis for dental treatment after prosthetic joint replacement: exploring the orthopaedic surgeon's opinion.
(Elsevier BV, 2016-09)
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic prophylaxis before dental treatment is routinely recommended by orthopaedic surgeons to prevent prosthetic joint infection (PJI). This recommendation is at odds with current guidelines. METHODS: A postal survey of 9 checkbox or short-answer questions was completed by 633 orthopaedic surgeons. RESULTS: The majority of respondents (n = 186 of 260, 72%) believe that antibiotic prophylaxis is required indefinitely for dental treatment. A small number (n = 43, 15%) seek a dentist's opinion before elective joint replacement. The surgeons reported low numbers of PJIs, although 24% (n = 68 of 280) believed that they were associated with dental treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Australian orthopaedic surgeons continue to recommend antibiotic prophylaxis for dental treatment. The recording of PJI in relation to dental procedures into clinical registries would enable the development of consistent guidelines between professional groups responsible for the care of this patient group.
The use of general anesthesia to facilitate dental treatment in adult patients with special needs.
(The Korean Dental Society of Anesthesiology, 2017-06)
General anesthesia is commonly used to facilitate dental treatment in patients with anxiety or challenging behavior, many of whom are children or patients with special needs. When performing procedures under general anesthesia, dental surgeons must perform a thorough pre-operative assessment, as well as ensure that the patients are aware of the potential risks and that informed consent has been obtained. Such precautions ensure optimal patient management and reduce the frequency of morbidities associated with this form of sedation. Most guidelines address the management of pediatric patients under general anesthesia. However, little has been published regarding this method in patients with special needs. This article constitutes a review of the current literature regarding management of patients with special needs under general anesthesia.
Functional and Structural Diversification of the Anguimorpha Lizard Venom System
(AMER SOC BIOCHEMISTRY MOLECULAR BIOLOGY INC, 2010-11-01)
Venom has only been recently discovered to be a basal trait of the Anguimorpha lizards. Consequently, very little is known about the timings of toxin recruitment events, venom protein molecular evolution, or even the relative physical diversifications of the venom system itself. A multidisciplinary approach was used to examine the evolution across the full taxonomical range of this ∼130 million-year-old clade. Analysis of cDNA libraries revealed complex venom transcriptomes. Most notably, three new cardioactive peptide toxin types were discovered (celestoxin, cholecystokinin, and YY peptides). The latter two represent additional examples of convergent use of genes in toxic arsenals, both having previously been documented as components of frog skin defensive chemical secretions. Two other novel venom gland-overexpressed modified versions of other protein frameworks were also recovered from the libraries (epididymal secretory protein and ribonuclease). Lectin, hyaluronidase, and veficolin toxin types were sequenced for the first time from lizard venoms and shown to be homologous to the snake venom forms. In contrast, phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the lizard natriuretic peptide toxins were recruited independently of the form in snake venoms. The de novo evolution of helokinestatin peptide toxin encoding domains within the lizard venom natriuretic gene was revealed to be exclusive to the helodermatid/anguid subclade. New isoforms were sequenced for cysteine-rich secretory protein, kallikrein, and phospholipase A(2) toxins. Venom gland morphological analysis revealed extensive evolutionary tinkering. Anguid glands are characterized by thin capsules and mixed glands, serous at the bottom of the lobule and mucous toward the apex. Twice, independently this arrangement was segregated into specialized serous protein-secreting glands with thick capsules with the mucous lobules now distinct (Heloderma and the Lanthanotus/Varanus clade). The results obtained highlight the importance of utilizing evolution-based search strategies for biodiscovery and emphasize the largely untapped drug design and development potential of lizard venoms.
Modulation of Conotoxin Structure and Function Is Achieved through a Multienzyme Complex in the Venom Glands of Cone Snails
(AMER SOC BIOCHEMISTRY MOLECULAR BIOLOGY INC, 2012-10-05)
The oxidative folding of large polypeptides has been investigated in detail; however, comparatively little is known about the enzyme-assisted folding of small, disulfide-containing peptide substrates. To investigate the concerted effect of multiple enzymes on the folding of small disulfide-rich peptides, we sequenced and expressed protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI), peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase, and immunoglobulin-binding protein (BiP) from Conus venom glands. Conus PDI was shown to catalyze the oxidation and reduction of disulfide bonds in two conotoxins, α-GI and α-ImI. Oxidative folding rates were further increased in the presence of Conus PPI with the maximum effect observed in the presence of both enzymes. In contrast, Conus BiP was only observed to assist folding in the presence of microsomes, suggesting that additional co-factors were involved. The identification of a complex between BiP, PDI, and nascent conotoxins further suggests that the folding and assembly of conotoxins is a highly regulated multienzyme-assisted process. Unexpectedly, all three enzymes contributed to the folding of the ribbon isomer of α-ImI. Here, we identify this alternative disulfide-linked species in the venom of Conus imperialis, providing the first evidence for the existence of a "non-native" peptide isomer in the venom of cone snails. Thus, ER-resident enzymes act in concert to accelerate the oxidative folding of conotoxins and modulate their conformation and function by reconfiguring disulfide connectivities. This study has evaluated the role of a number of ER-resident enzymes in the folding of conotoxins, providing novel insights into the enzyme-guided assembly of these small, disulfide-rich peptides.
Genomic, morphological and functional characterisation of novel bacteriophage FNU1 capable of disrupting Fusobacterium nucleatum biofilms
(NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2019-06-24)
Fusobacterium nucleatum is an important oral bacterium that has been linked to the development of chronic diseases such as periodontitis and colorectal cancer. In periodontal disease, F. nucleatum forms the backbone of the polymicrobial biofilm and in colorectal cancer is implicated in aetiology, metastasis and chemotherapy resistance. The control of this bacteria may be important in assisting treatment of these diseases. With increased rates of antibiotic resistance globally, there is need for development of alternatives such as bacteriophages, which may complement existing therapies. Here we describe the morphology, genomics and functional characteristics of FNU1, a novel bacteriophage lytic against F. nucleatum. Transmission electron microscopy revealed FNU1 to be a large Siphoviridae virus with capsid diameter of 88 nm and tail of approximately 310 nm in length. Its genome was 130914 bp, with six tRNAs, and 8% of its ORFs encoding putative defence genes. FNU1 was able to kill cells within and significantly reduce F. nucleatum biofilm mass. The identification and characterisation of this bacteriophage will enable new possibilities for the treatment and prevention of F. nucleatum associated diseases to be explored.
Molecular Interactions of Peptide Encapsulated Calcium Phosphate Delivery Vehicle at Enamel Surfaces
Phosphorylated peptides derived from milk caseins, known as casein phosphopeptides (CPP) self-assemble and encapsulate the calcium and phosphate mineral in the form of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) thus forming CPP-ACP nanocomplexes that are non-toxic and bio-compatible. The biomedical application is the repair of tooth surfaces (enamel) at early stages of tooth decay. These nanocomplexes release calcium and phosphate ions to rebuild demineralised HA crystals in enamel subsurface lesions. The topical application of CPP-ACP at the tooth surface initiates a series of interactions at the enamel mineral hydroxyapatite surface, and at the enamel salivary pellicle that are not well understood. In this study, we have shown that the β-casein (1-25) peptide binds reversibly to Ca2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, La2+, Ni2+, and Cd2+ metal ions. In contrast, binding to Sn2+, Fe2+, and Fe3+ ions, resulted in ion-induced aggregation. The casein peptides as well as the mineral ions dissociate from the CPP-ACP complexes to adsorb to both the un-coated and saliva-coated mineral surface with the mineralisation increasing monotonically with increasing pH. Furthermore, SEM of the CPP-ACP revealed images of spherical particles surrounded by ACP mineral. In conclusion, the enamel remineralisation process involves an array of interactions between the peptide and mineral ions of the CPP-ACP delivery vehicle and the tooth enamel mineral with its salivary pellicle.