Copper-ATSM as a Treatment for ALS: Support from Mutant SOD1 Models and Beyond
Web of Science
AuthorNikseresht, S; Hilton, JBW; Kysenius, K; Liddell, JR; Crouch, PJ
University of Melbourne Author/sCrouch, Peter; Liddell, Jeffrey; Kysenius, Kai; Hilton, James; Nikseresht, Sara
AffiliationBiochemistry and Molecular Biology
Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Document TypeJournal Article
CitationsNikseresht, S., Hilton, J. B. W., Kysenius, K., Liddell, J. R. & Crouch, P. J. (2020). Copper-ATSM as a Treatment for ALS: Support from Mutant SOD1 Models and Beyond. LIFE-BASEL, 10 (11), https://doi.org/10.3390/life10110271.
Access StatusOpen Access
The blood-brain barrier permeant, copper-containing compound, CuII(atsm), has successfully progressed from fundamental research outcomes in the laboratory through to phase 2/3 clinical assessment in patients with the highly aggressive and fatal neurodegenerative condition of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The most compelling outcomes to date to indicate potential for disease-modification have come from pre-clinical studies utilising mouse models that involve transgenic expression of mutated superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). Mutant SOD1 mice provide a very robust mammalian model of ALS with high validity, but mutations in SOD1 account for only a small percentage of ALS cases in the clinic, with the preponderant amount of cases being sporadic and of unknown aetiology. As per other putative drugs for ALS developed and tested primarily in mutant SOD1 mice, this raises important questions about the pertinence of CuII(atsm) to broader clinical translation. This review highlights some of the challenges associated with the clinical translation of new treatment options for ALS. It then provides a brief account of pre-clinical outcomes for CuII(atsm) in SOD1 mouse models of ALS, followed by an outline of additional studies which report positive outcomes for CuII(atsm) when assessed in cell and mouse models of neurodegeneration which do not involve mutant SOD1. Clinical evidence for CuII(atsm) selectively targeting affected regions of the CNS in patients is also presented. Overall, this review summarises the existing evidence which indicates why clinical relevance of CuII(atsm) likely extends beyond the context of cases of ALS caused by mutant SOD1.
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