Architecture, Building and Planning - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 1377
Making Melbourne Modern: Urban Transformation and the 1956 Olympic Games
(Docomomo Japan, 2021-08-29)
The 1956 Summer Olympic Games, the first held in the southern hemisphere, transformed the Australian city of Melbourne. It signalled Australia’s coming of age as a sporting nation and as a catalyst for urban change it was unprecedented. A dreary provincial city was forced to conceive and promote itself as modern and forward looking. The need to provide stadia, venues, athletes’ village, and supporting infrastructure meant the recasting of landscapes and urban space on a scale never before seen in Melbourne. The city was dressed for the occasion: 19th century cast iron verandas were removed from shopfronts and new tram stops replaced old ones. Modern art, for the first time, was brought outside into the streets and onto public buildings, in service of modernizing Melbourne’s image. Today, there remains mixed evidence of that urban transformation. Yet, the legacy has been profound. Some individual buildings, elements of infrastructure, and works of art have become heritage landmarks. Others, like the Melbourne Cricket Ground, which stood in as the main athletics stadium at the time, have been demolished or completely replaced. The athletes’ village survived but is now a ghetto for the socially down-at-heel. Not everyone was a winner. Yet, Flinders Park, close to the central business district and next to the Yarra River, which saw temporary facilities erected for the games in 1956, is today a complete sports and entertainment precinct of international standing. Without the Olympic Games, such a development would never have occurred.
SAHANZ: Los últimos 15 años, 2004-2019
(Facultad de Arquitectura, Diseño y Urbanismo. Universidad de Buenos Aires., 2021-12-20)
Este artículo esboza un panorama de la historia de la arquitectura escrita en Australia y Nueva Zelanda en los últimos quince años. The Society of Architectural Historians, Australia and New Zealand (Sahanz) fomenta la investigación de calidad en el campo de la Historia de la Arquitectura en la región. Para conmemorar su vigésimo aniversario, Julia Gatley recibió el encargo de escribir la historia de los primeros años de la Sociedad, que sirve como ejemplo y punto de partida para el trabajo que aquí se propone. En los últimos quince años, la investigación realizada por miembros relevantes de Sahanz, dentro y fuera de sus límites, muestra un claro enfoque transnacional y transcultural en Australasia y Asia-Pacífico, que combina lo local y lo global. El objetivo de este artículo es ‘inventariar’ ese panorama y el papel que juega la investigación histórica en la región en los debates más recientes sobre ‘lo global’ en arquitectura.
Timber and Multi-Storey Buildings: Industry Perceptions of Adoption in Australia
(MDPI AG, 2021-12-16)
The use of Engineered Wood Systems (EWS) as structural alternatives or complements of traditional materials, such as steel and concrete, is of growing interest and acceptance in the architecture, engineering, and construction industries. Gathering evidence from the Australian context, this paper proposes a roadmap for the adoption of EWS as the primary structural materials of medium-rise buildings, with the scope of increasing levels of public awareness about the potential and current shortcomings of these building technologies. A nation-wide survey with stakeholders at the forefront of adoption in structural design, construction, and property development, indicates that the demand for timber in multi-storey projects has promising prospects of growth, but faces circumstantial industry-wide hurdles in the short to medium term. Awareness of benefits and inclination towards more use of timber among designers are positive factors that provide a promising base for further adoption. The translation of positive front-end design attitudes into adoption, however, requires holistic long-term investment efforts with industry-wide education. The pathway to innovation for timber in multi-storey projects needs to grow beyond mere promotional strategies of its benefits, seeking to expand technical knowledge through education and reaching out beyond a group of already committed and knowledgeable stakeholders at the forefront of adoption.
Evaluation of Urban Design Qualities across Five Urban Typologies in Hanoi
(MDPI AG, 2021-12-01)
Urban design has been shown to play a vital role in promoting the health and wellbeing of urban citizens. However, studies of microscale urban design are underrepresented in comparison with macroscale urban design, especially from low- and middle-income countries in Asia, where urban forms are traditionally compact, complex and with multiple layers and varied urban typologies. The study evaluated microscale urban design qualities of streets (n = 40) across five urban typologies in Hanoi—a typical city in a low- and middle-income country in Asia. The study found that urban typologies and their characteristics have particular impacts on urban design qualities. Old and high-density urban typologies tend to report higher urban design qualities than modern and low-density typologies. Urban design qualities are also significantly associated with the number of pedestrians on the streets. Compared to Western cities, the urban design qualities in Hanoi are substantially different, especially in terms of imageability and complexity, reflecting the differences in urban design and cultural context between cities from various regions. Overall, the study contributes to our understanding of urban design circumstances in Hanoi, providing policymakers, planners, urban designers and architects with important insights for sustainable urban design policies, strategies and interventions.
City Design and the Transmission of COVID-19
(CRC Press, 2021-06-08)
This chapter explores the influence of these land-use characteristics in each of the city designs on the transmission of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and hence the number of positive cases of COVID-19. It describes the role of city design with respect to the transmission of COVID-19 and particularly, on transmission of the virus in cities identified with high density road networks and public transit. The chapter discusses the potential policy implications arising from certain city designs and infectious disease out-breaks. The travel restriction on January 23, 2020, in Wuhan City and the following lock-down in the whole Hubei Province and nearby cities managed to slow the transmission of the virus in China. The opportunity to classify cities using objective data from standardised maps highlights the utility of spatial data. Community resilience is the ability of communities/cities to respond positively to crises such as the pandemic.
A Squandered Inheritance
(Melbourne University Press, 2021-12-01)
Far too often, heritage is framed as antithetical to progress, an obstacle to development in our cities. But perhaps it offers a way forward; a means by which we can tread more lightly on this earth; a tool for grappling with our past, warts and all; but most importantly, a means by which we can adapt this city for the future, while still offering spaces for memory and belonging grounded in our shared urban history.
Perceptions and Expected Immediate Reactions to Severe Storm Displays
(Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, 2019-01-04)
The National Weather Service has adopted warning polygons that more specifically indicate the risk area than its previous county‐wide warnings. However, these polygons are not defined in terms of numerical strike probabilities (ps). To better understand people's interpretations of warning polygons, 167 participants were shown 23 hypothetical scenarios in one of three information conditions—polygon‐only (Condition A), polygon + tornadic storm cell (Condition B), and polygon + tornadic storm cell + flanking nontornadic storm cells (Condition C). Participants judged each polygon's ps and reported the likelihood of taking nine different response actions. The polygon‐only condition replicated the results of previous studies; ps was highest at the polygon's centroid and declined in all directions from there. The two conditions displaying storm cells differed from the polygon‐only condition only in having ps just as high at the polygon's edge nearest the storm cell as at its centroid. Overall, ps values were positively correlated with expectations of continuing normal activities, seeking information from social sources, seeking shelter, and evacuating by car. These results indicate that participants make more appropriate ps judgments when polygons are presented in their natural context of radar displays than when they are presented in isolation. However, the fact that ps judgments had moderately positive correlations with both sheltering (a generally appropriate response) and evacuation (a generally inappropriate response) suggests that experiment participants experience the same ambivalence about these two protective actions as people threatened by actual tornadoes.
Foreign direct investment, enclaves and liveability: a case study of Korean activities in Hanoi, Vietnam
(LIVERPOOL UNIV PRESS, 2021-06-01)
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is a core element for global capital flows and a key driver for urban transformation. However, the ways in which FDI flows have been associated with the production of new urban spaces have attracted little academic attention. This research investigates how FDI activities have led to the migration of expatriate workers and their family members who have established ethnic enclaves in search of liveable environments. The paper focuses on the case of Korean activities in the Hanoi Capital Region (HCR) where the growing volume of FDI has facilitated two bipartite activities in geographically separate locations: one in production space for industrial activities in regional areas and the other in the social space for residential and commercial activities in new urban cores. The case study of Korean FDI, the largest investors in Vietnam, and in particular the HCR, depicts wider perspectives beyond a single industrial sector. This research sheds light on new aspects of recent changes in Hanoi, borne of cross-border capital and human mobilities. The ethnic residential enclaves are largely self-contained for intense social interactions, used as a tool to enhance liveability and bounded within commuting distance from the industrial sites.