Architecture, Building and Planning - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 1138
Occupants’ satisfaction and perceived productivity in open-plan offices designed to support activity-based working: findings from different industry sectors
Purpose: In the rise of offices designed to support activity-based working (ABW), parts of industry have fully transitioned to open-plan environments and then later to unassigned seating, whereas other parts, such as tertiary education, are still in the process of moving away from individual offices. There are a few relevant studies to understand how occupants from industry sectors with different levels of adoption of ABW perceived environments designed to support this way of working. This paper aims to contribute to the knowledge gap by providing insight into workers’ satisfaction and dissatisfaction from open-plan offices designed to support ABW along with the key predictors of perceived productivity. Design/methodology/approach: A data set of 2,090 post-occupancy evaluation surveys conducted in five sectors – tertiary education, finance, construction, property/asset management and design/engineering – was analyzed. ANOVA and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were conducted for the survey questionnaires. First, ANOVA tests were conducted for the whole sample with perceived productivity as the dependent variable. A seven-point Likert scale with five theoretical factors was generated with all survey questionnaires. CFA was performed to show the factor loadings. In addition, regression analyses were carried out for each of factor item taken as the independent variable, where perceived productivity was the dependent variable. Key sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction per sector were analyzed and differences between occupants reporting a negative or positive impact on their productivity were also investigated. Finally, open-ended comments were analyzed to show the key sources of dissatisfaction based on open-ended comments. Workers from construction were the most satisfied, followed by finance and tertiary education. Occupants from all industry sectors consistently rated their workspaces highly on biophilic and interior design. Distraction and privacy received the lowest scores from all sectors. Open-ended comments showed mismatches between spatial and behavioral dimensions of ABW both for satisfaction and perceived productivity. Interior design was the strongest predictor for perceived productivity for all sectors. dispel the notion that ABW implementation may not be suitable for certain industries, as long as the three key pillars of ABW are fully implemented, including design, behavior and technology. Originality/value: This paper provides insight into workers’ satisfaction and dissatisfaction from open-plan offices designed to support ABW in different industry sectors along with the key predictors of perceived productivity.
How to share a home: Towards predictive analysis for innovative housing solutions
(The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2020-01-01)
Renewed interest in cohousing solutions is driven by the rapid population growth and a lack of affordable housing in many cities across the world. The home share has become more prevalent in recent years due to the cost benefits and social gains it provides. While it involves challenges primarily concerned with the usage of communal areas, the viability of this housing model increases with the advancement of technology enabling new tools for analysis and optimisation of spatial usage. This paper introduces a method of sensor application in the occupancy analysis to provide grounding for future studies and the implementation of advanced computational methods. The study focuses on the underexplored potential of the communal spaces and provides a method for the measuring of specific aspects of their usage. The study applies principles of mathematical set theory, to give a more conclusive understanding of how communal areas are used, and therefore contributes to the improvement of housing design. Presented outcomes include an algorithmic chart and a blueprint of a behavioural model.
Building for Complexity: Insights into Growth, Self-Organisation and Adjustment
(Bubok Publishing, 2020)
While properties of complex systems often found in nature continually attract interest from architects and urban designers aspiring to create a more sustainable environment, their application at both practical and theoretical level, is dependent on innovative workflows and emerging design strategies. This paper presents the results of the material-based study into the role of algorithms in the creation of complex spatial systems, characterised by the ability to self-organise, grow and readjust. The contribution of this study is in the domain of design experimentation, and in developing a deeper understanding of complex spatial systems as something constructed, that is based on material performance and understood as a physical prototype. This paper outlines the algorithmic design framework for the making of an experimental branching structure enableling correlation between geometric features, structural behaviour and assembly constraints.
Urban planning capabilities for bushfire: treatment categories and scenario testing
(Australian Institute for Disaster Resilience, 2020-07-01)
The challenges facing settlements relating to bushfire require integrated approaches that manage risks across a wide range of factors. This paper sets out a framework demonstrating how urban planning, when coupled with appropriate decision support and future scenario testing, can reduce risks relating to bushfire while considering future growth. Examples of how planning can modify aspects of risk in association with scenario testing are included. Five main categories of risk reduction treatments are shown. The paper contributes to risk reduction by providing practical mechanisms for risk avoidance and treatment via urban and land-use planning systems combined with forward scenario testing to guide existing settlements and future growth.
The Labyrinth as immersive multimedia environment: Marshall McLuhan at Expo 67
(Taylor & Francis, 2021)
This article examines the Labyrinth, a multi-screen pavilion created by the National Film Board of Canada for the Montréal World Exposition in 1967. Within the Labyrinth, audiences were corralled through three chambers, each containing immersive multimedia environments that were designed to represent the chapters of an essential human life. The National Film Board envisaged the Labyrinth as a ‘new kind of instrument for communication […] created by the marriage of two ordinarily unrelated fields — the art of cinema and the art of architecture’. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the exact nature of this marriage of mediums. We will specifically focus on assessing the ways by which architectural space curated the phenomenological and epistemological relation that the audience had with the cinematic presentations in each chamber. Based on archival and primary sources, our research traces the design development of the Labyrinth and interprets its significance by employing Marshall McLuhan’s concepts of visual and acoustic space. As such, the article demonstrates how the Labyrinth modulated the balance between meaningful and affective modes of communication within its telling of the human story.
Clone Stamp: Maintaining Architecture's Image
Architects deal in imagined conditions, seeking to imbue their images with a mix of plausibility, desirability, and futurity so irresistible that the conditions depicted will be made real. While technical drawings convince their audience of their power by means of signatures, conventions, accuracy, and abstraction, the architectural visualization (the rendered photomontage) plays off a different register. Rather than giving instructions for how a building will be built or used, the photomontage attempts to move its audience to actively desire the realization of that which it depicts. The visualization is thus one of the key affective interfaces between the products of architectural labor and architecture’s diverse publics. Despite their central role, it’s perhaps odd that it is so hard to care about architectural visualizations. They are ubiquitous. They all look more or less the same. They all have the same (usually white, generally badly dressed, perpetually awkward) people. They adopt the same angles, the same weather, the same views (birds’ eye or that of the average-height male). Light falls in the same way across their anemic surfaces. They manage to make “urban life” seem vaguely pathetic, even to those of us who, in reality, don’t mind the occasional overpriced coffee and have a deep but unarticulated affinity for alfresco dining. The world of the photomontage is a highly uninteresting world, a place that inspires ambivalence at best.
Formalising the jeepney industry in the Philippines – A confirmatory thematic analysis of key transitionary issues
(Elsevier Inc., 2020-03-15)
Jeepneys are paratransit vehicles which constitute the bulk of urban transport in many cities in the Philippines. There are around 179,000 jeepneys of which 90% are fifteen years or older. However, this is not without so many other issues on the road. To address this, the government issued a landmark policy enabling the Public Utility Vehicle Modernization Program (PUVMP), a transformational large-scale initiative focused on land-based public transport in which the majority are jeepneys. The program brings about a comprehensive reform covering new policies in the franchising process, vehicle modernization, operator consolidation and changes in the current business model, financing and a more structured route planning process, among others. This is an ambitious undertaking, not merely because of its scale, but the likely disruption to the current, relatively informal model by which jeepneys are regulated. This paper uses deductive thematic analysis, based upon a review of the literature on informal/formal hybridised urban transport regulatory models, to investigate the reform's likely impact on the dynamics of the sector. As such it tentatively confirms the likely issues arising when transitioning from an informal model to a more formalised one. The paper raises imperatives for the global informal transport sector as a whole.
How can universities in emerging economies support a more thriving cycling culture?
(PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2020-09-01)
Higher education institutions have played an important role in pursuing sustainable futures, but do they also ensure inclusive futures? This research examines the implementation of a campus-based public bikesharing programs, as a means of creating a ‘cycling culture’ and changing people’s travel behaviours, yet its users appear to favour specific traits. This paper offers perspectives on the extent to which universities assist in achieving sustainable urban mobility. Results of this study demonstrate a significant difference in perception between bikeshare users and non-users of the UP Bike Share, the first PBSP pilot scheme implemented in the Philippines. Results are expected to help give better context to the importance of promoting non-motorized transportation within university campuses that will act as a catalyst for cycling mobility culture and behaviour change to contribute towards enhancing campus sustainability.
Conceptual Parametric Relationship for Occupants’ Domestic Environmental Experience
(MDPI AG, 2021-03-10)
Today’s architectural design approaches do not adequately address the relationship between users’ spatial, environmental and psychological experiences. Domestic environmental experience generally indicates users’ cognitive perceptions and physical responses within dwelling spaces. Therefore, without a clear perception of occupants’ experiences, it is difficult to identify proper architectural solutions for a domestic environment. To understand notions of these domestic experiences, the current study explores the theoretical relationship between spatial and environmental design factors within domestic settings which led to the concept of “Environmental Experience Design (EXD)”. Extensive data exploration was conducted using a combination of thirty keywords through different databases (e.g., Scopus, ScienceDirect, PubMed, Google Scholar, Mendeley and Research Gate) to categorise the relevant literature regarding thematic study areas such as human perception and phenomenology, environmental design and psychology, residential environment and design, health-wellbeing and user experiences. This study has identified theoretical associations between spatial and environmental design factors of different domestic spaces that can stimulate occupants’ satisfaction and comfort by reviewing eighty-seven studies from the literature. However, occupants’ contextual situations significantly impact domestic spaces, where spatial and environmental design attributes may be connected to diverse sociocultural factors. The scope of explanation about user context is limited, to some extent, in environmental design theories. Thus, combining occupants’ contexts with spatial and environmental design factors will be a future research direction used to explore the notion of “Domestic Environmental Experience Design”.
Openness and innovative development of the service sectors in Melbourne’s CBD
(Social Sciences Academic Press (China), 2020)
In the post-industrial world, the rise of ICT in global network scale and global value chain is rapidly forming which helps boost economic growth and accumulation of human capital with new technologies based industrial sectors. Within this context, inner Melbourne observed adjustment in labour structure and high value-added industrial development, which supports the sustainable growth of the urban economy, ensures and improves residents’ quality of life as well as visitors’ travel experience. This study concerns the interaction of division of labour and spatial structure for development of service economy upgrade of the service sector. It focuses on the monocentric city’s central business district, by applying partial analysis of characteristic, industrial change, policy and spatial features of Melbourne’s service sector. It aims to identify links between CBD transformation and globalising service economy to identify policy challenge. The comprehensive infrastructure in Melbourne’s CBD area and its effective use strongly support the rise of its service economy and industry transformation.
Brisbane: A Disrupted Green Building Trajectory
Brisbane in Australia is not a renowned city for green building and sustainability. While Sydney and Melbourne both enjoy international recognition for their sustainability efforts, Brisbane has struggled to keep up with green innovations in the building sector and rarely catches the attention of green building practitioners and researchers. Despite its current struggles, Brisbane looks back to relatively early greening initiatives including research and experimentation with alternative solar energy technologies. During the 1990s, the city defined ambitious goals for climate change mitigation, but the following decades have been marked by changes in political prioritisation and agenda setting. This chapter traces developments in green building in Brisbane since the 1960s, which are characterised by discontinuity and hence highlight the importance of the spatial context of green building transitions. Green building in Brisbane provides valuable insights into what can happen in the face of policy roll back at different spatial scales. The lack of political support for green building has been partially filled by private investors for the commercial sector, but recent solitary not-for-profit projects focused on affordable and social housing also provide niches for green building innovations..