Architecture, Building and Planning - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 1295
Urban Governance for a Sustainable Future
Cities have the potential to lead the way to a cleaner, greener, more inclusive future, but this cannot be achieved without effective leadership and governance. Here, we ask experts to reflect upon the governance challenges on the way to a sustainable urban world.
Fish Acquisition and Consumption in the African Great Lakes Region through a Food Environment Lens: A Scoping Review
Effective actions for the fishery and aquaculture sectors to contribute toward improving nutrition rely on an understanding of the factors influencing fish intake, particularly amongst vulnerable populations. This scoping review synthesises evidence from 33 studies in the African Great Lakes Region to examine the influence of food environments on fish acquisition and consumption. We identified only two studies that explicitly applied a food environment framework and none that linked policy conditions with the contribution of fish to diets. Economic access to fish was represented in the largest number of included studies (21 studies), followed by preferences, acceptability and desirability of fish (17 studies) and availability and physical access (14 studies). Positive perceptions of taste and low cost, relative to other animal-source foods, were drivers of fish purchases in many settings; however, limited physical and economic access were frequently identified as preventing optimal intake. In lakeside communities, fish were increasingly directed toward external markets which reduced the availability and affordability of fish for local households. Few studies considered intra-household variations in fish access according to age, gender or physiological status, which represents an important knowledge gap. There is also scope for future research on seasonal influences on fish access and the design and rigorous evaluation of programmes and policies that address one or more constraints of availability, cost, convenience and preferences.
Particulate Matter and Premature Mortality: A Bayesian Meta-Analysis
BACKGROUND: We present a systematic review of studies assessing the association between ambient particulate matter (PM) and premature mortality and the results of a Bayesian hierarchical meta-analysis while accounting for population differences of the included studies. METHODS: The review protocol was registered in the PROSPERO systematic review registry. Medline, CINAHL and Global Health databases were systematically searched. Bayesian hierarchical meta-analysis was conducted using a non-informative prior to assess whether the regression coefficients differed across observations due to the heterogeneity among studies. RESULTS: We identified 3248 records for title and abstract review, of which 309 underwent full text screening. Thirty-six studies were included, based on the inclusion criteria. Most of the studies were from China (n = 14), India (n = 6) and the USA (n = 3). PM2.5 was the most frequently reported pollutant. PM was estimated using modelling techniques (22 studies), satellite-based measures (four studies) and direct measurements (ten studies). Mortality data were sourced from country-specific mortality statistics for 17 studies, Global Burden of Disease data for 16 studies, WHO data for two studies and life tables for one study. Sixteen studies were included in the Bayesian hierarchical meta-analysis. The meta-analysis revealed that the annual estimate of premature mortality attributed to PM2.5 was 253 per 1,000,000 population (95% CI: 90, 643) and 587 per 1,000,000 population (95% CI: 1, 39,746) for PM10. CONCLUSION: 253 premature deaths per million population are associated with exposure to ambient PM2.5. We observed an unstable estimate for PM10, most likely due to heterogeneity among the studies. Future research efforts should focus on the effects of ambient PM10 and premature mortality, as well as include populations outside Asia. Key messages: Ambient PM2.5 is associated with premature mortality. Given that rapid urbanization may increase this burden in the coming decades, our study highlights the urgency of implementing air pollution mitigation strategies to reduce the risk to population and planetary health.
Built environments for inpatient stroke rehabilitation services and care: a systematic literature review
(BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2021-01-01)
OBJECTIVES: To identify, appraise and synthesise existing design evidence for inpatient stroke rehabilitation facilities; to identify impacts of these built environments on the outcomes and experiences of people recovering from stroke, their family/caregivers and staff. DESIGN: A convergent segregated review design was used to conduct a systematic review. DATA SOURCES: Ovid MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature were searched for articles published between January 2000 and November 2020. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed-methods studies investigating the impact of the built environment of inpatient rehabilitation facilities on stroke survivors, their family/caregivers and/or staff. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Two authors separately completed the title, abstract, full-text screening, data extraction and quality assessment. Extracted data were categorised according to the aspect of the built environment explored and the outcomes reported. These categories were used to structure a narrative synthesis of the results from all included studies. RESULTS: Twenty-four articles were included, most qualitative and exploratory. Half of the included articles investigated a particular aspect of the built environment, including environmental enrichment and communal areas (n=8), bedroom design (n=3) and therapy spaces (n=1), while the other half considered the environment in general. Findings related to one or more of the following outcome categories: (1) clinical outcomes, (2) patient activity, (3) patient well-being, (4) patient and/or staff safety and (5) clinical practice. Heterogeneous designs and variables of interest meant results could not be compared, but some repeated findings suggest that attractive and accessible communal areas are important for patient activity and well-being. CONCLUSIONS: Stroke rehabilitation is a unique healthcare context where patient activity, practice and motivation are paramount. We found many evidence gaps that with more targeted research could better inform the design of rehabilitation spaces to optimise care. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020158006.
One Health, veterinarians and the nexus between disease and food security
Achieving ecologically sustainable food systems for people and animals is one of the greatest challenges facing our world today. Four interdisciplinary approaches that promote a holistic, systems approach to disease prevention and food security are introduced. Current domestic and international initiatives that link disease prevention with food and nutrition security are presented, with an emphasis on animal-source food and examples from Australia, Tanzania and Timor-Leste. Veterinarians are uniquely placed to use their training in comparative physiology in support of the production of sustainable, nutritious, ethical and safe food delivered with minimal waste to promote human, animal and environmental health.
Characterising infant and young child feeding practices and the consumption of poultry products in rural Tanzania: A mixed methods approach
Suboptimal breastfeeding practices, early initiation of complementary feeding, and monotonous cereal-based diets have been implicated as contributors to continuing high rates of child undernutrition in sub-Saharan Africa. Nutrition-sensitive interventions, including agricultural programs that increase access to nutrient-rich vegetables, legumes, and animal-source foods, have the potential to achieve sustainable improvements in children's diets. In the quest to evaluate the efficacy of such programs in improving growth and development in the first 2 years of life, there is a role for mixed methods research to better understand existing infant and young child feeding practices. This analysis forms part of a longitudinal study assessing the impact of improvements to poultry health and crop production on diets and growth of 503 randomly selected children from eight rural communities in Manyoni District in central Tanzania. Using an explanatory sequential design, the quantitative phase of data collection was conducted between May 2014 and May 2016, comprising six monthly structured questionnaires, four monthly household-level documentation of chicken and egg consumption, and fortnightly records of children's breastfeeding status. The subsequent qualitative phase involved in-depth interviews with a subset of 39 mothers in October 2016. Breastfeeding was almost universal (96.8%) and of long duration (mean = 21.7 months, SD = 3.6), but early initiation of complementary feeding was also common (74.4%; mean = 4.0 months, SD = 1.8), overwhelmingly driven by maternal perceptions of insufficient milk supply (95.0%). Chicken and eggs were infrequently eaten, but close associations between maternal and child consumption patterns (p < .001) suggest the potential for strategies that increase household-level consumption to bring nutritional benefits to young children.
Food composition tables in resource-poor settings: exploring current limitations and opportunities, with a focus on animal-source foods in sub-Saharan Africa
(CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2016-11-01)
Animal-source foods (ASF) have the potential to enhance the nutritional adequacy of cereal-based diets in low- and middle-income countries, through the provision of high-quality protein and bioavailable micronutrients. The development of guidelines for including ASF in local diets requires an understanding of the nutrient content of available resources. This article reviews food composition tables (FCT) used in sub-Saharan Africa, examining the spectrum of ASF reported and exploring data sources for each reference. Compositional data are shown to be derived from a small number of existing data sets from analyses conducted largely in high-income nations, often many decades previously. There are limitations in using such values, which represent the products of intensively raised animals of commercial breeds, as a reference in resource-poor settings where indigenous breed livestock are commonly reared in low-input production systems, on mineral-deficient soils and not receiving nutritionally balanced feed. The FCT examined also revealed a lack of data on the full spectrum of ASF, including offal and wild foods, which correspond to local food preferences and represent valuable dietary resources in food-deficient settings. Using poultry products as an example, comparisons are made between compositional data from three high-income nations, and potential implications of differences in the published values for micronutrients of public health significance, including Fe, folate and vitamin A, are discussed. It is important that those working on nutritional interventions and on developing dietary recommendations for resource-poor settings understand the limitations of current food composition data and that opportunities to improve existing resources are more actively explored and supported.
Transdisciplinary Project Communication and Knowledge Sharing Experiences in Tanzania and Zambia through a One Health Lens
(FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2016-02-09)
The project "Strengthening food and nutrition security through family poultry and crop integration in Tanzania and Zambia" brings together animal, crop, and human health specialists, economists, ecologists, social scientists, and practitioners to work with participating communities. It aims to increase poultry value chain, crop farming systems efficiency, and household food and nutrition security and thus requires understanding of, and ability to work effectively within, complex systems. In this context, communication knowledge sharing and synthesis between stakeholders from diverse backgrounds and a range of experiences, perspectives, agendas, and knowledge is a challenge. To address this situation, communication is conceived as a dialog and a participatory process bringing together all stakeholders. This process results in unanticipated and unexpected results that require a high degree of flexibility and adaptability from team members. The paper analyses the approach and aim of the communication strategy developed for the project and the challenges faced.
Designing STEAM Education: Fostering Relationality through Design-Led Disruption
A significant contention underpinning the commentary around STEM / STEAM is the evidence of discipline hierarchies, and inherent binary perspectives and/or biases that lend themselves to privileging one or more disciplines over another in an interdisciplinary education context. The current focus on increasing engagement with STEM in Australian schools provides opportunities to explore how the creative and liberal arts, and arts-based approaches to teaching and learning are being adopted to significantly enhance teaching and learning outcomes in and for STEM education. This article examines how design for a STEAM education programme evolves and is adopted in an Australian context. Tasmania represents one of the most vibrant creative communities in Australia. At the same time it has one of the lowest levels of educational attainment. Entrenched teaching habits and disciplinary hierarchies often create significant barriers to the implementation of STEAM despite genuine goodwill and enthusiasm for STEAM among teachers and within schools. This article argues that, despite the contrasting dynamics extant in the Tasmanian educational context, it is here that some of the nation’s most curious and exciting examples of STEAM teaching and learning have emerged. It offers an example of an innovative learning project and proposes the means by which these disciplinary strands have been effectively entwined.