Architecture, Building and Planning - Theses
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The cultural significance of wood fired Scotch ovens and the poetics of olfaction as a preservation strategy for bakeries in Victoria
This thesis investigates how baking has changed historically in Australia from Australian Aboriginal origins to colonial settlement, and the present day. It looks at what remains of Victorian bakeries and examines how best to protect their remaining tangible and intangible heritage. By the 1960s mass-produced factory bread dominated the palette of Australian’s: Using RedBeard Bakery in Trentham Victoria as a case study, the research explores how bakers are reinterpreting and rediscovering traditional crafts of bread making. The thesis examines a body of scholarly work focusing on olfaction, then interprets how this could be used as a preservation strategy for cultural heritage. Projects from disciplines including visual art, architecture, design and history illustrate how heritage can find new and innovative approaches to evoke the value of place.
Outpatient Oncology Settings: The role of the built environment in fostering patient sense of support
This thesis explores the role that the architectural design of oncology care facilities plays in empowering and supporting patients undergoing intravenous anti-cancer treatment within outpatient settings. The study investigated the significance and meanings patients’ attribute to their experiences in these settings and the impact of such impressions on their satisfaction and wellbeing. A mixed-methods approach, including qualitative (in-depth) interviews and the development and testing of a survey tool to measure patient perception of healthcare built spaces guided the conduct of this research. For the interview phase, twenty-four patients undergoing infusion-based treatment, including a number of former patients, were recruited from outpatient cancer care facilities across two contexts, Australia and Egypt. General discussions with six architects expert in the design of such spaces were also conducted. In the survey phase, the utilised tool was first devised following established principles for developing valid and reliable measurement scales in the field of health sciences and then used to empirically quantify and characterise patients’ perception of the built environment. Two-hundred and seven patients participated in this phase across four healthcare settings in Victoria, Australia. Basic descriptive and inferential analytical techniques were implemented to explore architectural aspects leading patients’ overall experience. Following synthesis of the collected data out of the two methods employed, the study highlights the architectural qualities that elevate patients’ sense of a supportive environment and point to a refined, and more comprehensive, conceptual understanding of the way the built environment may promote wellbeing. The study further demonstrates how such a level of support may contribute to experiencing a climate of patient-centred care. Drawing on the latent signification of the interviews’ outcome at the investigated Australian and Egyptian sites, the thesis further highlights the distinctive effect of design in balancing the unavoidable presence in the hospital, contributing to incidences of positivity, and encouraging reasons to return – potentially enhancing compliance with treatment.
Endogenous Climate Resilience: Informal Adaptation Pathways in the Pacific’s Small Island Developing Cities
More than half of the world’s population currently lives in cities, with an additional 2.5 billion people projected to join these urban inhabitants by the middle of the 21st century. With urban areas being both responsible for the vast majority of carbon emissions associated with energy use, and simultaneously facing substantive risks associated with climate impacts, it is clear that efforts to both mitigate and adapt to climate change impacts will be ‘won or lost’ in cities. The term resilience is increasingly being applied to these urban systems, particularly in reference to climate-driven shocks and stresses. The uptake of resilience thinking has been driven in part by its capacity to bridge climate mitigation and adaptation, while incorporating additional fields and methodologies such as those associated with disaster risk management. This flexibility has been particularly appealing to international development actors and institutions, who have accelerated the term’s national and sub-national uptake through the embedding of resilience language in international policy frameworks and financing mechanisms. Resilience’s conceptual fluidity, however, has led to sustained criticism from social scientists. These critiques have focused particularly on three areas: resilience thinking’s lack of sensitivity to social inequality; the risk of divergence in normative perceptions of ‘core’ urban functions; and a capacity for the term to facilitate the devolution of the state’s duty of care to its most vulnerable citizens. These concerns are especially pertinent for informal settlements, which house an estimated 880 million urban inhabitants globally and operate outside of institutionally recognised urban structures and systems. This thesis examines the interaction between informally derived endogenous climate resilience and donor-driven exogenous climate resilient development initiatives in two Pacific cities: Honiara, Solomon Islands and Port Vila, Vanuatu. These two case studies provide critical insight into the accelerating process of urbanisation in a region characterised as one of the world’s most climate vulnerable, focused through the experiences of two major climate-driven shock events. Drawing on primary data from interviews with representatives from six informal settlements (n=57) as well as institutions engaged in the deployment of climate resilient development initiatives (n=26), I identify how the endogenous forms of climate resilience that are prevalent in informal settlements interact with donor-driven, exogenous development initiatives. These primary datasets have been integrated with analysis of project documentation, policies and finance, as well as sociodemographic and spatial data. The results from this research demonstrate that ‘informal climate resilience’ is an integral part of sub-city systems, especially – but not exclusively – informal settlements. These forms of endogenous resilience are shown to be critical to the recovery, survival, and development of climate vulnerable communities. At the same time, they remain disconnected from institutional resilience-building efforts. Their prevalence, at times in conflict with city-scale values and functional assumptions, is found to be largely unrecognised within contemporary resilience theorisations and practice. By adapting resilience thinking heuristics originating from ecological applications – set within institutional analytical frameworks for engaging with informality – this research identifies strategies for engaging with informal climate resilience, with the potential for application within and beyond the Pacific.
Ballarat’s Pride: Leading Architects from 1857-1895
This thesis is inspired by the pride in 19th century Ballarat architects shown in this quote from journalist William Bramwell Withers (1823-1913). He asserts the role of Ballarat’s architects beyond its borders, at a time when wealth from gold could have kept them busy in Ballarat. This highlights a geographical spread of activity that is unexpected, given the importance of capital cities in the modern Australian cultural scene. It invites a closer consideration of these architects and regional architectural practice more generally. In his article, Withers identified three practices working in this manner: Caselli & Figgis; Tappin, Gilbert & Dennehy; and James & Creber. Yet he only discussed the first two; including a listing of their recent designs and work at hand. This thesis will focus on these two practices, and their architects and professional networks, to gain new insights into the nature of regional architectural practice in 19th century Victoria. It begins in 1857, when H.R.Caselli commenced his practice, and the gold rush had created a permanent town in Ballarat. It concludes almost forty years later, in 1895, when these architects had died, or their working relationships had ceased.
Assessing the impact of urban form on the energy consumption and Green House Gas (GHG) emissions in Metropolitan Melbourne
The resource use and environmental impacts of buildings and transport energy consumption are some of the key aspects of sustainable development. The relationship between urban form and energy and Green House Gas (GHG) emissions has been explored in several studies suggesting a strong link between housing density and public transport (PT) accessibility and urban energy consumption. However, most studies only explore building or transport energy impacts, and mostly focus on largely aggregated levels of analysis (metropolitan or municipal). Different modelling approaches have been used to explore this relationship, mainly top-down and bottom-up building energy models, however top-down approaches have limited use in assessing impacts of specific policies and actions on the built environment. Also, previous research has only focused on building or transport energy use. Integrated modelling approaches that explore the important synergies between these two main sectors of energy use are still needed. Therefore, this Thesis proposes a bottom-up integrated modelling methodology for assessing the impacts of alternative urban forms on the urban energy and carbon footprints by employing an integrated building and transport typology approach, with household typologies as the common element of analysis. This integrated modelling approach can be scaled up from small geographical scales to Metropolitan scale and can be used as a base to explore the implications of alternative urban growth scenarios and housing locations, types and densities, and transport mode options. The proposed model will allow key stakeholders to pre-assess impacts of energy consumption and GHG emission of specific urban policies on housing and transport infrastructure growth and the adoption of new, alternative energy technologies in urban areas. The research shows that the urban form has an impact on energy consumption, however, multiple dimensions of this impact should be considered in order to understand the existing trade-offs between building density and transport energy use. In order to explore the implications of future urban growth scenarios in terms of the carbon footprint of Metropolitan Melbourne, six urban growth scenarios were co-created with planning professionals and academy researchers. These scenarios were: Business-as-usual Scenario (BAU), Compact City, Sprawl City, Urban Corridor City, Activity Centre City, and High Efficiency City. The study of the six urban growth scenarios considered herein suggests that the Compact City and Activity Centre city scenarios lead to better energy performance or urban energy use and a significant reduction in GHG emission, when compared with a Business-as-Usual Scenario. Both the Compact City and Activity Centre city scenarios propose a decentralisation of housing and employment, add more medium-density activity centres, and connect employment centres by public transport. The High Efficiency City scenario showed that the increase in the adoption of Solar PV and Electric Car technology could support the carbon emissions targets more effectively, in combination with a more efficient distribution of future residential areas and employment centres. The results of this Thesis indicate that a more varied mix of building types in middle areas of Melbourne could provide a significant reduction in building energy use and GHG emissions, as it is shown in the Compact City scenario model that included a larger percentage of medium-density developments in its building type distribution in the middle areas of Metropolitan Melbourne. Future research directions to contribute further to the evaluation of urban energy efficiency are identified, which provide a better comprehension of urban energy use efficiency and support future carbon emissions reductions schemes in Australia and the world.
Boom Mannerism: The Architectural Practice of Gerard Wight and William Lucas from 1885 to 1894
To date there has been no thorough research into the architectural practice of Wight and Lucas with only a few of their buildings referred to with brevity in histories and articles dealing with late nineteenth-century Melbourne architecture. The Boom era firm of Wight and Lucas from 1885 to 1894 will therefore be investigated in order to expand their catalogue of works based upon primary research and field work. Their designs will be analysed in the context of the historiography of the Boom Style outlined in various secondary sources. The practice designed numerous branches for the Melbourne Savings Bank in the metropolitan area and collaborated with other Melbourne architects when designing a couple of large commercial premises in the City of Melbourne. These Mannerist inspired classical buildings fit the general secondary descriptions of what has been termed the Boom Style of the 1880s and early 1890s. However, Wight and Lucas’ commercial work will be assessed in terms of its style, potential overseas influences and be compared to similar contemporary Melbourne architecture to firstly reveal their design methods and secondly, to attempt to give some clarity to the overall definition of Melbourne’s Boom era architecture and the firm’ place within this period. Wight and Lucas’ other building types such as residences and churches will also be discussed to offer a balanced view of their practice as a whole. Research into the architecture of Wight and Lucas is intended to shed light upon the heritage significance of the firms’ existing body of work.
‘Leisure, pleasure … rubbish and rats?’: the planned and unplanned reclamation of bluestone quarry sites in urban Melbourne, 1835-2000
This thesis explores how regulatory mechanisms and community perceptions of urban extractive industry have changed, particularly during the twentieth century. Extractive industries operational in the twenty-first century are now located well outside of the metropolis, obviating the impacts of this deleterious industrial practice. Yet this was not always the case. Australian cities, settled following the industrial revolution, made great use of these extractive resources often accessing them in quite densely settled areas. Such land-use often took place in inner-urban locales, and the infancy of planning practice at that time saw these quarries established in an ad hoc manner. The absence of controls with respect to the location and management of quarries culminated in an uncomfortable closeness with nearby residential areas. As quarrying operations moved towards the urban periphery during the early twentieth-century, the absence of comprehensive planning failed to prevent suburban development from encroaching upon extractive industry, and in some cases this led to conflict between residents, government, planning bodies, and industry. This is especially apparent in Melbourne, the world’s largest metropolitan area atop a basaltic plain, from which the stone has been utilised for construction and roadwork since the city’s inception in 1835. Urban planning for quarries was historically absent until the formation of legislation in the 1960s in response to urban and land-use conflict; additionally, the city’s ongoing reliance on rubbish tips led tipping to be a default after-use for such sites, also raising ire. Improvements in this process encompassed the creation of legislation, planning policies, and the formation of activist groups to agitate for change. These developments were prompted by land-use conflicts, demographic change, and increased environmental awareness, all contributing to a perceived need for better planning. The tipping process was recast through a lens of social justice as undesirable undertakings no longer compatible with residential life. This thesis focuses on the use and after-use of sites of extractive industry in Melbourne, and how these sites and their final outcomes were planned—by government and planning bodies—and ‘unplanned’—left to the market or the community to resolve. It demonstrates that comprehensive urban planning for quarries and their after-uses have been historically absent: this was exacerbated by the city’s reliance upon landfill as a mode of refuse disposal, which could also be harnessed to remediate excavated sites. These findings were revealed in undertaking case study analyses of the western suburbs of Newport and Niddrie. Although communities in both areas were fundamentally successful in limiting or preventing the complete transformation of their local quarry sites into tips, the form and success of quarry remediation was still fundamentally subject to the limitations of the state government’s planning directives. This thesis found that local communities and groups were crucial to the achievement of a compensatory and judicious land-use outcome for urban quarry sites. The investigations within this thesis reveal the importance of local community as ‘watchdogs’ of planning processes and procedures in an instance of legislative and regulatory oversight spanning two centuries.
Ex-post impact evaluation method for public-private partnership projects from the perspective of multiple stakeholders
Public-Private Partnership (PPP) model of procurement is a way to deliver public infrastructure using private funding and managing risk for public purposes. Currently, PPPs have been criticised in the media, social media and in the academic literature, notably regarding their limited contribution to real public welfare. The arguments are related to (1) the amount of profit that is conferred to the private entity, (2) the long-term implications for the public sector in term of service payments, (3) the quality of the service which can be driven by cost reduction goals; among others. From a taxpayer’s point of view, the impact of PPP projects, like any kind of public investment, should be assessed and analysed, especially if a private company is making profit with it. One relevant instrument to protect the taxpayers’ interest is an ex-post impact evaluation. The problem is that a PPP ex-post impact evaluation is difficult to perform because usually: (1) projects are large and complex, (2) there are different perceptions of the delivery and the impacts, (3) the time horizon for the evaluation in some cases is more than 20 years, and (4) there are political, economic, and ideological incentives that can create biases towards their evaluation. The problem to be addressed by this research is the lack of a method to evaluate, on an ex-post basis, the impact of an infrastructure PPP project from the perspective of multiple stakeholders. The arguments that support the problem are the existing criticism of PPPs regarding their performance for achieving public welfare, the nonexistence of a PPP ex-post evaluation method, and the difficulty associated with PPP evaluation due to their multiple perspectives from the different stakeholders. The research question is: How can ex-post impact evaluation of Public-Private Partnership projects be conducted employing the perspective of its multiple stakeholders? For developing the PPP ex-post impact evaluation method, a Design Science approach is adopted. Design Science differs from the traditional behavioural science approach because it aims to change nature by solving a problem through the design of an ‘artefact’. The evaluation method is considered an artefact for the purpose of this research, grounded on the Project Success concept from the project management discipline. The outcome of the research is an ex-post impact evaluation method presented as a procedure with five steps: (1) evaluation setup, (2) stakeholder workshop preparation, (3) stakeholder workshop, (4) data analysis, and (5) evaluation conclusion. This research has a theoretical contribution by refining the concept of project as a project-system, and by proposing three high-level principles to inform a successful project. The research also has a practical contribution by delivering a documented evaluation method to assess existing PPP projects by systematically addressing their multiple perspectives towards them.
Managing the landscape values of urban heritage: a critical analyisis of the UNESCO's Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape in Valparaíso, Chile
This thesis critically analyses the approach proposed by the Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape (herein the HUL Recommendation) for managing the landscape values of urban heritage. The HUL Recommendation was adopted by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in 2011. The HUL approach is a significant step forward in the management of heritage because integrates a diversity of values and it considers the increasingly changing dynamics of urban areas. The implications of implementing the HUL in Latin America, namely Chile, are investigated through a case study of the World Heritage Site (WHS) of the city of Valparaiso. The Historic Quarter of the Seaport City of Valparaiso was inscribed as WHS in 2003. In the justification for inscription as WHS , its statement of outstanding universal significance is largely founded on the relationships between the natural and the built environment which have shaped this unique city. In 2013, the UNESCO and the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) conducted an Advisory Mission that critiqued the existing management plan for the WHS of Valparaiso. The Advisory Mission criticised that its management approach lacks important issues related to the Outstanding Universal Values (OUV) beyond the boundaries of the WHS. Therefore, the Advisory Mission considered the HUL approach as a good starting point to improve the management of the outstanding landscape values of the urban heritage of Valparaiso. The main research question is focused on how the approach proposed by the HUL Recommendation can manage the outstanding landscape values of the city of Valparaiso. To address this question, mixed methods and triangulation were used. The methods included policy analysis, key stakeholder interviews, community focus groups and mapping exercises to explore the applicability of the HUL to Valparaiso. By assessing the alignment of the current policies of heritage conservation and urban planning in Valparaiso, the views of key stakeholders and the expectations of local communities are critically analysed through the management approach proposed by the HUL Recommendation. The results reveal barriers and facilitators for the HUL approach to be implemented in Valparaiso, as well as practical implications for improving the content of the HUL Recommendation. The thesis finds that implementing the HUL approach in Valparaiso and Chile is not straightforward. Firstly, the WHS has boundaries that are not consistent with broader outstanding landscape values of Valparaiso. That reflects that the definition of WHS has not well accounted for its OUV. Secondly, there is a significant conflict between the HUL approach, the legislative framework on heritage conservation in Chile, the conceptions of heritage of national level authorities and the perspectives of local communities. Beyond the case study of Valparaiso and Chile, the thesis undertakes a critical analysis of the HUL Recommendation in the Hispanophone context. This thesis finds that the HUL approach remains rooted in European and English-Speaking ideals of heritage which makes its implementation in Latin American cities problematic. This critique of the HUL approach has implications in how the view of local communities is considered and how the boundaries of WHS are defined. Thus, this thesis contributes in reflecting on the applicability of the HUL approach Latin American cities and the potential implications at a global level.
Architectures of Encounter: Shaping Social Interaction in the Intercultural City
Globalisation and migration are producing ever increasing intensities of difference in Western cities. People from all over the world are becoming urban in search of a better life, bringing with them culturally distinctive ways of living and being that mark them as different. The sharper the differences, the greater the potential for discrimination, racism, prejudice and weakening social cohesion. Everyday intercultural encounters hold the promise of breaking apart fixed notions about difference. Despite renewed attention to intercultural encounter in open-public space, scholarly research has focused more on social agency with less regard for the agency of the built environment. This thesis explores how the built environment of open-public space shapes intercultural encounter in the everyday life of Western cities, to better inform policy makers and design practitioners. An actor-network ethnography is employed to study the agential qualities of the urban square typology in Copenhagen, Melbourne and Toronto, through document and artefact analysis, nonparticipant observation, mapping, and semi-structured interviews. The data is analysed using a constant comparison framework producing descriptions of human-nonhuman relations of intercultural encounter. This thesis makes four main arguments. First, all intercultural encounters are meaningful, and the built environment has agency to both enable and constrain these interactions. Second, affordances rather than humans or nonhumans triangulate intercultural encounter. Third, the programmes designed into public spaces have agency to enable and constrain intercultural encounter, albeit in conflicting and contradictory ways. Finally, symbolic representations have limited agency to enable intercultural encounter.
An inquiry of conditions and criteria associated with Green Building project success
Buildings are an extremely important part of the built environment as they fulfil the requirements of human life on a daily basis in terms of living and working. However, services from buildings come at a cost as the building and construction sector tends to consume large amounts of resources and therefore negatively impacts the environment. With an increased understanding of environmental degradation, society is starting to show more acceptance towards Green Buildings. These buildings tend to be much more environment-friendly, socially habitable and economically affordable in the long term. To sustain increased development of such projects, attention should be given to the Success conditions which enable aspired project outcomes and Success criteria against which the project performance is evaluated. Most existing studies have not focused on identifying Success conditions and criteria specific to Green Building projects. There is also a dearth of research focused towards interrelationships within Success conditions and Success criteria. This limits the use of previous research on Green Building development practices. Focusing on office buildings, this thesis investigates how Green Building development can be managed to achieve successful project outcomes. This research takes into account the special requirements of Green Buildings as well as the Success criteria and Success conditions of Green Buildings. This research used the theoretical lens of Project Success, Sustainability, Complexity perspective and the Transformation-Flow-Value-generation theory. An exploratory and explanatory mixed-methods research design is used. This research design relies on a multi-regional survey of 104 Green Building professionals and 75 semi-structured interviews in Australia, Hong Kong, Pakistan, Singapore, the United Arab Emirates, and the United Kingdom. To interpret the data and test the reliability of findings, qualitative and quantitative analysis are conducted on interview and survey findings. Results show that Green Buildings are significantly different from traditional buildings primarily because of their complexity, design methodology, and team collaboration. Project management performance (that is, Schedule, Cost, and Quality) in Green Buildings is interrelated with sustainability performance. Good project management tends to associate with high sustainability performance in Green Buildings. Results also confirm the fact that successful Green Buildings are mainly those which meet the end-users needs and client’s requirements and at the same time have reduced environmental effects. Results also demonstrate that success in Green Buildings is generally associated with socio-technical conditions. To achieve success in Green Building development it is necessary to have proficient project teams and clients, high collaboration among the team, highly committed project team and client, rigorous project planning, timely execution of activities, and rigorous process of defining goals. These conditions help realise success in Green Buildings by resulting in value for the project client and reducing the non-value adding activities during project development. For practice related to Green Buildings, the findings of this research will allow project decision-makers to have a more holistic range of criteria to judge the project performance and make decisions related to project development. Clients and project teams can consider the wide range of identified conditions to optimise project performance and achieve successful project outcomes. The Success conditions and criteria can also be considered by Green Building certification systems in their credit lists to ensure a higher correlation between certification and success. Theoretically, the findings can inform future research focused on Green Building project development. This will ultimately result in the more efficient development of Green Building projects that help reduce the effects of climate change as well as resource depletion.
Designing a fair approach to the compulsory acquisition of private land for public purposes: Evidence from Australia, India, and the United Kingdom
The value of land has been long acknowledged by economists for its multifaceted utilities, both monetisable and non-monetisable. Considering the import role of land in the welfare of the society and individuals, the process of distribution of rights to use, own, and dispose land has been carefully designed under the guidance of theories of distributive justice. An example of such a complex distribution of rights among conflicting interest groups is the power of the state to compulsorily acquire private property for public projects that are intended to maximize social welfare. Despite its strong theoretical underpinning in the distributive theory of utility that encourages social welfare maximisation, the contemporary process of compulsory acquisition is often disputed for resulting in uneven distribution of burdens and benefits, more specifically for putting an extra burden on the original landowners. This research re-examines the utilitarian approach to valuing land and finds that oversimplified application of the theory has equated ‘utility’ to ‘income’ generated from land or its market value, thus excluding two crucial aspects of land value: firstly the economic value of non-monetisable utilities, such as the positive effect of inheritance on the wellbeing of future generations; and secondly the monetary value of those utilities that are monetisable in the future and are yet non-observable in present time, such as the futuristic development potential of the land. Taking motivation from the problem of unfair compensation to the affected landowners whose land is compulsorily acquired, this research aimed at informing the design of a fair mechanism of compulsory acquisition. This objective was achieved in two stages: firstly by designing a fair process, using which all stakeholders can be granted equal power to negotiate and the outcomes are jointly constructed for the affected landowners and the society at large; and secondly, by designing a fair compensation strategy that encompasses the full range of utilities and functions generated by land. To achieve these two objectives, this research took inspiration from the theory of procedural fairness and the theory of distributive justice respectively and analysed the process and compensation strategies in three Commonwealth countries, which are Australia, India, and the United Kingdom. Research objective 1: Designing a fair process: In 1978, John Thibaut and Laurens Walker proposed the theory of procedural fairness which recommends balanced distribution of control on the process of decision making among multiple stakeholders (or disputants). Thibaut and Walker (1978) proved that for just allocation of resources the process of decision formation must be fair. In 1980, Gerald S. Leventhal proposed six criteria of fair process, which he called ‘justice rules.’ These are – consistency rule; bias-suppression rule; accuracy rule; correctability rule; representativeness rule; and ethicality rule, which formed the basis for analysing the process of compulsory acquisition in the three countries. Major gaps identified in the process of compulsory acquisition in these countries were the following: 1. Poor involvement of the people (including affected landowners) in project planning and design; 2. Poor accountability of the acquiring agency and its agents – a. to address or provide reasoning for objections and suggestions made by the people; b. for timelines for compulsory acquisition and project completion; 3. Lack of neutrality in the assessment of objections and suggestions invited from the larger public; 4. Imbalance in the negotiation power (arising out of imbalance in financial and information resources) between the affected landowners and the acquiring agency; 5. The legal process of compensation negotiation requires time, effort, and resources; 6. No fair consideration for stress and time lost in the process which is not of landowners’ choosing; 7. No penalty for delays in the payment of compensation; 8. Poor transparency and information sharing; 9. Lack of consistency of government’s support to the project; 10. The poor mechanism for bias-suppression resulting in ‘favouritism’ and ‘regulatory capture’; 11. Poor correctability and inefficient grievance management; and 12. Lack of benevolence and humanitarian approach towards the affected landowners. Based on the analysis of the process of compulsory acquisition in the three countries and the best practices; suggestions provided by the affected landowners, their agents, and experts in each country; and review of suggestions provided by the Scottish Law Commission, a summary of suggestions for improvements and best practices is presented below. List of suggestions for improvement of the process and best practices of compulsory acquisition from Australia, India, and the United Kingdom: 1. Improving the involvement of the people in project planning and design, through: a. holding public consultations and meetings on the project proposal, design, location, and other details; b. providing opportunities for cross-examination of parties involved in the project; c. giving decision-making power to the community. 2. Demonstration of the public purpose of the project and justifying the use of compulsory acquisition at the lowest tier of government (urban and rural local governance bodies) in the project affected area. 3. Necessary to have the consent of at least 70-80 percent affected families for acquiring land for public projects where private partners are involved. 4. Having an independent body for the assessment of social impacts of the project on local communities. 5. Having an independent body for the assessment of objections raised by the people to the preliminary notification to the acquisition, and for confirming the acquisition notice. 6. Allowing people to challenge the Government’s decision of overruling their objections to the preliminary notification and making the Government accountable to the Parliament. 7. Determination of compensation amount by an independent and neutral agency. 8. Providing full information on the components of compensation and valuation report of the subject property. 9. Considering non-monetary forms of compensation such as providing help in finding an alternative property, changing school for children. 10. Judicial reviews on compensation to be performed by an independent legal agency having experts from law and property (called the Lands Tribunal). 11. Affordable and (relatively) informal opportunities for negotiation and dispute resolution in the shadow of the Tribunal/Court, such as through arbitration, mediation, and Administrative Appeals Tribunal. 12. Making arrangements for rehabilitation and resettlement of the affected families wherever mass displacement is caused due to the compulsory acquisition of land. 13. Providing compensation for non-owners of the land who are dependents on land for livelihood. 14. Providing compensation for the negative impact of the project on the property value (or blight). 15. Considering the loss of ‘hope value’ for the future development potential of land (for which planning permission is not obtained but could have been obtained in the near future). Research objective 2: Designing a fair compensation To achieve the second objective concerning fair compensation, this research took inspiration from Amartya Sen’s ‘capability approach’. Sen’s theory equates the value of land to the economic value of useful functions generated by the land. This should include financial and non-financial functions of land, which contribute to the wellbeing of the landowner. Fair compensation is redefined by this research to mean satisfactory reconstruction or replacement of valuable functions for each affected landowner. To design a fair compensation mechanism, it was, therefore, necessary to identify fundamental functionings of land, and then to understand how these can be operationalised in the compensation mechanism? Identification of the functionings offered by land has been the most important and challenging part of this research and the most valuable contribution. For understanding the nature of functionings derived from land this research relied on the owners of land who have experienced the compulsory acquisition of their land. Alongside this, researchers working in the related areas have also informed these findings. There is an ample store of knowledge in the secondary literature on the importance of land ownership. Using the above-mentioned sources of information nine broad functionings of land have been identified in this research. These ‘fundamental functionings’ are considered valuable to landowners across the globe and are summarised in broad categories below. It is acknowledged that although these fundamental functionings have the ability to inform many systems, they do not cover all contexts, for example, all indigenous communities. List of fundamental functionings of land: 1. Secure means to basic ends: Livelihood security; Security of physical space and protection against eviction and relocation; Financial security. 2. Self-identity: Self-identity with possessions as memorabilia; Self-identity in social status; Self-identity with the personalisation of the place of occupancy; Self-identity with property in which one has invested labour; Self-identity as a part of the territorial identity. 3. Social capital: Formal and informal relationship building; Ownership as a socio-cultural requirement. 4. Social equity and empowerment: Empowerment for weaker sections of the society; Empowerment for the weaker gender. 5. Familial wellbeing: Interpersonal relationship building; Security for future generations (bequest); The wealth effect of land and property on households' wellbeing. 6. Power to make decisions on land matters: Control over one's physical environment; Decision-making power on the use of the property; Involvement and influence on matters that can cause externalities; Power to exclude others; Neighbourhood building and place-making. 7. Political empowerment: To be able to put forward one’s opinion without any suppression or fear. 8. Personal comfort and convenience: Suitability of property and location for oneself; Acquaintance with physical space and environment developed over time. 9. Psychological wellbeing: Feeling of psychological calmness; The sense of achievement and proud; Dignity and self-respect; Intrinsic, extrinsic and contributory value. Operationalisation of these functionings in the compensation mechanism would require a combination of monetary and non-monetary strategies. As a demonstration of how some objectively measurable functionings can be assessed and operationalised, this research used empirical evidence from India to identify the economic value of a crucial financial functionings, which is the future development potential of the land. In the Indian case-study, improvement in the development potential of the land is interpreted in terms of improvement in land-use, and it is found that agricultural land on the urban fringes of Bengaluru has a very high potential for development. In monetary terms, the development potential of agricultural land is 192 percent if its use improves to residential and is 288 percent if improved to apartment use. The takeaway point is that the development potential of land improves over time and is partially captured in the market value to the extent it is observable in the present time. Whereas a landowners’ losses are not confined to only observable potential in the present time and they are deprived of future benefits from the development potentials that are unobservable in the present time. Using the theoretical framework of functionings of land it has become possible to explain that there is more financial loss than just the market value of the land because the affected landowners lose the unobservable development potential of land when the land is compulsorily acquired.