Architecture, Building and Planning - Theses
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Ethno-Architectural Contextualization of Housing for Smart Villages: A Multi-case Study in Assam, India
Based on the Gandhian Philosophy of Adarsh Gram and Gram Swaraj, Smart Villages is a concept to enable rural development and bridge the rural-urban gap in India. It aims to empower the village and its residents to be self-dependent and active contributors towards holistic development of the country. As such, the ‘barefoot college’ in the village of Tillonia, Rajasthan, India, exemplifies the concept by showing that the rural people are able to thrive when given the right tools and environment. It does not imply that the rural has to become urban, but rather, it encourages and demonstrates how the knowledge and technology can be contextualised to the rural. Hence, the Smart Assam Project was developed in the Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning at the University of Melbourne, in collaboration with Assam Engineering College, Guwahati, Assam, India, to provide the environment to conduct research on creating Smart villages. The thesis explains the research problem that though there have been efforts to develop the rural, being regarded as backward in comparison to its urban counterparts instead of recognising the merits of ruralism and rurality, the approach taken towards housing is the same as an urban construction that its results are not as satisfactory to the residents, thereby, failing to contribute holistically towards development. As such, this thesis undertakes a contextualist pragmatic approach to gather and analyse data to develop an Information Framework, which enables the collation and dissemination of information regarding housing design and construction trends in the rural context, aiding a user-oriented bottom-up approach to rural housing. The research is divided into eight chapters where the first chapter states the aim, objectives, and research questions. It defines the scope of the research by focussing on architectural design and construction trends that shape the houses in the diverse socio-cultural contexts of four villages belonging to different ethnic cultures, across the districts of Karbi Anglong East, Karbi Anglong West, and Dima Hasao. As such, the research question addresses the aim and objectives of the research in three steps or sub-research questions. The first addresses the village and its surrounding regions as the causative context while addressing the household, family units and their houses as the subject that demonstrate the effect of the context to understand the causal process within the village. The second addresses the main causes that influence the architectural design and construction trends in the village among the elements that shape the causative context; and finally, the third addresses the missing components within the existing approach to incorporate it into a framework to enable better implementation of rural housing. In the second chapter indicates the scope of the research based on the understanding of rural, the rural-urban gap, the relevance of housing in rural development, and the role of architecture and architects in rural housing. The literature defines the research gap in approach, implementation and perception of rural housing schemes that deters the development of Smart villages. It shows that the socio-cultural aspects of the rural are relevant to the architecture and hence the rural construction trends. As such, a theoretical foundation is developed called Ethno-architectural contextualisation, based on the design-oriented research of environment-behaviour studies by Amos Rapoport (1963) and culture-oriented research of ethno-architecture by Gerard Toffin (1991). In the third chapter, the contextualist pragmatic approach helps shape a multi-case study research strategy which incorporates methods like cultural mapping, to study the village level causative context, and behaviour settings, to study the household level affected result, and analytic induction as a process of analysis to explain the causal process in both the village and the household levels of data collection. For the cultural mapping, transect walks and focus group discussions are conducted to gather data on the socio-cultural, socio-economic, historical, and environmental contexts. A questionnaire survey is conducted among the households to map the population based on the demographic data and socio-economic context of the village. This, along the house-type date of the households, helps to select five cases for the behaviour settings which is aided by an Interview-based projective technique and the AEIOU framework, a mnemonic coding structure, is used to analyse house layouts based on Activity, Environment, Interaction, Objects and User. The data is presented in the following fourth and fifth chapters based on the village scale data and household scale data, respectively. In the fourth chapter, the cases are presented according to the data collected in the transect walk and the focus group discussion that shares the designing and construction principles of the traditional house, before discussing the elements of the cultural ecology of each village. They are discussed based on accessibility and connectivity, historical background, socio-cultural practices and traditions, communication and knowledge sharing, community infrastructure, livelihood, resources and services and the traditional house. In the fifth chapter, due to brevity, only eight, out of the 18 household cases studied in the household level data collection process, are documented. The household is discussed based on the changing house layouts that have come about due to reconstruction, renovation or adding extensions to the house. Using the AEIOU framework, each house is presented and analysed to demonstrate the evolution of the house resulting from the contextual influences of the village. In the sixth chapter, the collective analysis of the preceding chapters of the context, the village and the subject, the architectural design and construction trends of housing is discussed as a complete process in the rural cultural. Through the discussions of the rural cultural ecology, the first sub-research question is answered. This leads to the discussion on the main causes that influences the housing practice and construction trends, which are multi-culturism and cultural assimilation, the role of the government and the role of the construction industry itself, thereby answering the second sub-research question. This leads to the suggested guidelines that need to be incorporated into rural housing scheme to promote a user-oriented bottom-up approach to housing, which answers the third sub-research question. In the seventh chapter, based on the discussion and suggestion from chapter six, the pragmatic contextualist approach encourages the research to revise a typical construction lifecycle project and contextualise it to a rural housing scheme implementation process. The process includes an information framework after the initiation stage and before the planning stage of the construction lifecycle that brings different key roles relevant to a user-oriented bottom-up rural housing in a collaborative approach to build effective forms of shelter. As a result, the Information Framework is used to inform the beneficiary of the skills, materials, and construction methods available to construct a self-built house through the rural housing scheme, thereby answering the main research question of the thesis. The eighth and final chapter reviews the progress of the research by providing a summary of each chapter and concluding the thesis with discussions of the contributions, limitation, and recommendations. In conclusion, this research set out to investigate a way to bridge the rural-urban gap through housing. In doing so, the literature review emphasized on the relevance of architecture and the role of architects in rural housing, which is unfortunately lacking in practice. The pragmatic contextualist approach of the research shapes a multi-case study research strategy which allows the researcher to conduct a research in two levels, the village level across four villages and the household level among 18 households. With the surplus of data regarding the causative context, the village, and the evolving nature of architectural design and construction practice, the analysis addressed the research questions that were presented in the first chapter, thereby explaining the rural cultural ecology, defining the main causes of architectural evolution, and producing suggestions for developing a user-oriented bottom-up approach to existing rural housing schemes. As a result, an information framework was developed based on the research methodology and the ensuing data collection and analysis process of gathering, processing, and collating data to disseminate information towards a well-informed implementation of the rural housing scheme.
Sustainable transitions in cities: local transformation in an urbanising world
Cities are recognised globally as crucial sites for sustainable development. There is increasing uptake of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by city governments, but complexities remain in how these goals are applied to urban planning processes and how to maximise sustainable transitions locally. Addressing this premise, this paper aims to examine how various methods of engagement with the SDGs by city governments can drive the transition toward sustainable urban development. This research applies an urban governance framework from sustainable transitions theory (Transition Management) to assess various methods of city-level engagement with the SDGs across the Asia-Pacific – the most rapidly urbanising region in the world. Eight SDG reports published by cities were analysed, and six interviews were conducted with city actors engaging in an active SDG localisation project. Regional commonalities are analysed using the four spheres of Transition Management – strategic, tactical, operational, and reflexive – to understand how cities undergo transformative change and assesses whether local engagement with the SDGs has the potential to drive global change. The findings indicate that city-level engagement with the SDGs does have the potential to influence urban development outcomes. A city government’s capacity to engage with, and more importantly, measure the impact of localising the SDGs underpinned effective implementation. Widespread uptake of the goals proved challenging due to urban heterogeneity, but city-to-city peer learning was identified as a key enabler for local-level engagement. This study underlines the need for flexibility in the format and process of SDG engagement, while also providing for the critical need for relevant local data to support local policy setting. The outcomes suggest that a more focussed approach to SDG localisation is needed, to better define and measure the factors for success, and to help city governments identify those mechanisms that will generate tangible impact at a local and global level.
The Influence of the Good Oil on the Contemporary Saudi House in Riyadh, From the Late 1930s to the Present
The transition from traditional to modern housing has passed through multiple stages from the late 1930s to the present in Saudi Arabia. One of the most important is the discovery of oil, which has impacted the built environment and modernized Riyadh City in particular and the country in general. Furthermore, the subsequent socioeconomic changes have influenced some of the social aspects of residential housing and house forms themselves. Also, historical events like the transfer of the government headquarters from Makkah to Riyadh in 1953 and the master plan of Riyadh in 1972 by the Greek architect Doxiadis influenced the regional identity and cultural continuity of society in Saudi Arabia. Further, the emergence of socio-religious movements in the late 1970s greatly influenced the Saudi house form. This thesis is an investigation of the development of Saudi middle-class housing in Riyadh from a historical viewpoint, using a sociocultural focus. In this research the significant forces will be determined that have shaped the architecture of the modern Saudi house and the leading changes in the traditional built environment after the discovery of oil in Riyadh in 1938. Additionally, the researcher will identify the architectural characteristics of post-1938 houses which enforced people to adjust their homes to meet their sociocultural values. A comprehensive study will be conducted to analyze the details of these houses in Riyadh, which will include various aspects of cultural, economic and policymaking forces that impacted both the people and the urban fabric. Although this research is based on a case study of Riyadh, its findings can be applied to other cities. This research is also not intended to take sides, nor to judge traditionalism or modernism in Saudi residential units. Instead, the significance of the state’s growth in wealth will be examined and how this is manifested in architecture and built forms. The researcher will try to find out how people have adjusted to their new city, and how their traditional and cultural values have adapted to the modern urban and architectural patterns.
The Classical Language of Architecture in British Malaya, 1867-1941
In both Malaysia and Singapore, thousands of historic buildings sport facades with architectural vocabulary drawn from Graeco-Roman Antiquity. Despite the ubiquity of classical ornament in Malayan architecture, to date there has been no comprehensive study of the classical style in Malaya. This thesis addresses this gap by undertaking the first survey of classical architecture in British Malaya. This thesis charts how classicism was transmitted and translated in Malaya between 1867, when the Straits Settlements became a Crown Colony of the British Empire, and 1941, when the Japanese invasion of Malaya interrupted Britain’s colonial influence. Through a stylistic analysis of selected buildings from the Straits Settlements, Federated Malay States, and the Sultanate of Johor, this thesis traces the parallel development of imperial and vernacular modes of classicism over this period. Drawing on the work of the architectural historian John Summerson and a range of post-colonial scholars, this thesis argues that the imperial language of classicism was creolised in the hands of Malaya’s architects and builders, becoming a local vernacular. It argues against a prevailing reading of the Malayan vernacular as a ‘coarsened’ form of classicism. Instead, it argues that an imperial architectural language was translated into an eclectic, cosmopolitan, but ultimately coherent vernacular. This thesis argues that Malayan classicism was heterogeneous in terms of both production and reception. For Malaya’s colonial administrators, classicism was the language through which British governance, and power, was symbolically articulated. Classicism in its various guises, from Palladianism to the Edwardian Baroque, became a potent symbol of British authority in Malaya. This language was soon appropriated by local elites, however, becoming a symbol of both regal and religious patronage in the Johor Sultanate. Classicism was also adopted by a range of other communities. From Catholic missionaries to Chinese merchants, the classical language provided a means by which Malaya’s diverse faith and cultural communities could articulate both belonging and difference. While schools in Malaya taught in a Babel of languages, classicism became their architectural lingua franca. Classicism also became a symbol of Malaya’s mercantile wealth, adorning warehouses, godowns, and banking chambers. Perhaps more than any typology, however, it is in the terraced shophouses of British Malaya that classicism was most fully realised as a local, if fundamentally eclectic, architectural language. The syncretic grafting of both Western and Eastern ornamental vocabulary onto a largely classical framework on the facades of these buildings came to characterise this Malayan typology. The near universal adoption of classicism would only be challenged in the 1930s with the advent of Modernism. The 1930s saw the supremacy of the classical language increasingly challenged and questioned, even as imperial classicism reached its zenith with the construction of the Supreme Court in Singapore. The Japanese Occupation of Malaya, which interrupted over a century of British colonial influence in the region, put an end to classicism’s dominance in Malaya. Today, these buildings endure as a significant part of both Malaysia and Singapore’s architectural heritage, making the study of classicism integral to the region’s architectural history.
The untold story of modernism: a critical analysis of the post war church in Victoria, Australia, 1950-1970.
In the post-war decades, places of worship were radically transformed from a building type adhering to time honoured architectural traditions to one that became increasingly diverse and individualistic. Social change, coupled with new architectural ideas and the broader advent of modernity created a setting in which long held continuities with historical traditions were challenged. This thesis investigates how the church became modern after the Second World War through a critical examination of the architectural design of church buildings in Victoria, Australia, c.1950-1970. Offered herein is an understanding of modernism in post-war places of worship as a nuanced, locally inflected and diverse movement moderated by the particularity of its social setting and agency of local clergy and congregation to determine the innovation or conservatism of designs. The early colonial churches in Australia were constructed in historicist styles and as late as the 1940s, all were derived from models of predominantly British origin. Only after the Second World War did modernism in places of worship arise in the Australian context, as religious organisations responded to a wave of demand due to a ‘baby boom’ population and expanding suburban conditions, coupled with economic austerity. The unique circumstances of the post-war setting are substantiated by the number of places of worship constructed in the Melbourne metropolitan area of Victoria during the 1950s and 1960s far outweighing the number constructed in any other decade or period of the twentieth century. Under these circumstances, a wider spectrum of architectural language began to be expressed and accepted. Formally, new materials and techniques of construction paved the way for unobstructed interiors, non-load bearing walls and unlimited formal and aesthetic possibilities. Spatially, the modern church became single volume and a fan shaped seating arrangement evolved to accommodate the modernisation of liturgical ritual and worship. In their designs, Australian architects were informed by their international experiences and increasingly looked to Europe and America for precedents, in addition to British traditions. Artistically, the return to hand crafted work by practising artists as the only artistic works appropriate for worship, alongside the twentieth century shift away from figurative representation towards abstraction, was supported by the architectural profession promoting the integration of art and architecture as a way of generating symbols of contemporary life. The decades of the 1950s and 1960s were unique years of dynamic change in religious and social practices and the acceptance of architectural modernity. Using a wide range of primary source material, including images and architectural drawings, journals of the day, parish archives and site visits, statistical and spatial data on the number, location and style of church buildings constructed in Victoria during the post-war period, this study demonstrates a wide spectrum of design responses were produced: from innovative modern buildings to buildings designed in continuity with historic precedents as well as a swath of buildings that were nuanced in their combined use of innovation and tradition. Using a thematic framework, this thesis explores the complex and overlapping influences of society, architecture and modernity upon the design of places of worship in Victoria during the 1950s and 1960s. Findings are supported by detailed case studies woven across thematic chapters to demonstrate how a common range of post-war conditions moderated the design of places of worship in different ways to produce a wide spectrum of results.
Values of the Thai architecture from the last period of the absolute monarchy (1925 – 1932)
The Thai architecture from the last period of the absolute monarchy of King Prajadhipok’s period (1925 – 1932) lacks recognition and has been overlooked. A reason for this is the Thai Department of Fine Art applies an outdated valuing framework and declared that this architectural period was less valuable. This minor thesis proposes that Thai architecture in this period, supported by King Prajadhipok and the elite has values, significance, and distinction. This thesis used the updated and broader framework from the international charter and the Thai practitioner guideline to value the case studies, which are the public buildings commissioned by the King and the elites: The Science building and the Student Union of Chulalongkorn University, and the Bangkok Memorial Bridge and the monument of King Rama I. The study contributes to filling a gap in knowledge of Thai architecture in the transition period between Rama VI’s Nationalism-style (1910- 1925) and the modern architecture of the People’s Party and beyond (1932 -). This thesis found that this period’s architecture is not less valuable as the government organization had declared. The main findings are that the architectures between 1925 – 1932 are characterized by a sparing approach with fewer ornaments due to the economic problem. This resulted in a unique style of Thai architecture that combines Western planning with stripped Thai ornaments. For the first time, overseas-trained Siamese architects replaced Western architects. A particular work system was devised based on the design collaboration between the Thai architects and master artisans. The Western-trained Siamese architects bought modern architectural skills of designing, drafting, understanding Western technology and materials. This period initiated the architecture characterized by modern functionality, durability, and public uses presented in the stripped traditional style and constructed the public infrastructure and civic center to benefit all classes.
Queering Heritage: How can Informal Collections be Safeguarded for Enriching Community Heritage?
Due to historic perceptions of LGBTQIA+ people, valuable information regarding their historiography and culture have been systematically excluded from institutional safeguarding, including their use of public and private built environments. With the advent of technologically mediated knowledge sharing, oral histories, memories, and other ephemera are now being collected by queer communities' as an informal form of auto-archivization. While queer archival initiatives are gaining representation, informally collected intangible heritage has the potential to consolidate with formal archival practices through networked metadata to recreate lost spaces for heritage purposes. This research develops a conceptual framework for contemporary queer community groups to use for the creation of a place-based digital archive. Decentralizing record management from traditional hierarchical boundaries allow for public contribution and collaboration, while recorded spatial experiences and visual ephemera are coded in participatory archival frameworks; these can be extracted and converted into metadata for a networked archival practice. This consolidation provides the information to apply techniques of architectural forensics and reconstruct a digital replica of non-extant spaces in which an archive is virtually situated. This paper argues that a combination of contemporary digital technologies and informal memory catalogues can be used to redefine archival and heritage practices, regulations, and legal frameworks. While virtual environments provide a technical framework for interacting with digital reproductions of space, issues of authenticity, representation, and information retrieval arise. Future research with active participants is required to determine results on the interpretation and experience of virtually situated archives. There is increasing pressure placed on acknowledging the heritage of marginalized groups and digital accessibility plays a vital role in the management of cultural information. Through a queer lens, the future of heritage and archival practices can transform to be more diverse, accessible, and publicly respected.
The architecture of film: Tarr, angelopoulos and how to ride a wild horse
With the dawn of moving images, architects started to develop an interest in studying and utilizing film for theorizing, critiquing and representing architecture. In recent years, a myriad of books and academic papers by architectural theorists have been published around the strong relationship between architecture and film. Simultaneously, leading architecture schools established subjects concerning the two interlocking arts, some academics dedicated their research career to studying the relationship between film and architecture, post-graduate degrees on film and architecture were devised and architects and architecture students have been involved in a significant trend toward creating architectural animations and film. However, despite the advances of digital filming and editing and its availability to the public, sophisticated technologies of lighting, modeling, simulation and texturing in CGI programs used by architecture students, architectural films and animations commonly present certain shared symptoms such as fast and disturbing camera movements, aimless editing, weak compositions and narrative-less montages. These symptoms reveal an unfortunate truth that architects still do not know how to use the moving images effectively, and this knowledge has yet to be successfully transferred to the discipline of architecture. This dissertation traces the roots of this challenge and tackles it in a series of research activities. This thesis proposes a toolbox named the ‘film-architecture matrix’ that can be used as a matrix of film design and analysis. Within the thesis, this film-architecture matrix is employed as an analytical tool in three chapters. The dissertation puts forward a pedagogical framework for teaching filmmaking to architects and utilizes the film-architecture matrix as the main design generator. In addition, this dissertation takes on the task of presenting and critically examining the two filmmakers, Bela Tarr and Theo Angelopoulos to architectural discourse. It is argued that the cinema of Tarr and Angelopoulos, and the cinematic movement represented by them known as ‘slow cinema’, entails certain features that make them useful studies to the field of architecture and can influence the quality of architectural films and animations, and the discipline of architecture in a broader sense.
Spatial effects of controlling security measures in places of mass gathering
This project examines the spatial effects of controlling security measures in places of mass gathering, specifically public squares, and develops a generalised framework for evaluating these effects in other spaces. Over the first decades of the twenty-first century there has been a rapid and transformative shift in perceptions of threat and national security, particularly in the west, towards preemption. This reactionary shift has introduced new motivations behind controlling security measures, amplifying tensions between security imperatives and rights to the city. Security in public space is not new, but in recent years there has been an increase in protective security interventions and a tightening of rules about acceptable behaviours. This project is motivated by a lack of understanding of the small-scale, spatial impacts of national security imperatives and the global doctrine of preemption on the fabric and lived experiences of urban places. This research employs a multiple case study analysis method to reveal generalised spatial conditions and security effects. The case study sites are Federation Square in Melbourne, Trafalgar Square in London, and Hashemite Plaza in Amman. Twelve security measures were investigated at each site, within three broad categories – panoptic devices, regulatory procedures and fortress measures. Primary source data was collected as spatial observations in the form of mapping, photographing and analysing. Each site was visited over several days during different conditions, times and events. At each visit the spatial layout of security measures was observed and noted, including how they interact with and effect each other, people and events in the space. Historical research into each site explains their development; the process of securitisation; and their varied historical, social and cultural contexts. This research reveals generalised patterns of control and power relations across diverse global sites, expressed through controlling security measures. Unexpectedly, the most insidious spatial control technique is site branding. This is the fixing of a preferred identity to a place, defining sanctioned behaviours and excluding deviating behaviours or competing spatial identities. This research explores how the political impacts the socio-spatial and is located at the intersection of urban theory, with social and political science. It contributes to the existing body of knowledge by introducing an analysis method that can be applied to other sites, and expands the existing literature geographically, and to include small scale analysis of public spaces. Opportunities for further research includes analysis of the continued development of the case study sites as new threats emerge, and the focus of global and national security shifts. While global threats today are different than when this research began, security responses continue to be characterised by control of human behaviour in public space.
Locating net zero emissions: an ethnographic comparison of local approaches to community-scale carbon neutrality
The concept of global net zero emissions has emerged as a powerful unifying narrative to connect the science and policy of climate change. This thesis examines how policy actors translate the concept of global net zero emissions across different scales and contexts into local goals for, and actions towards, community-scale carbon neutrality. The study is based on an ethnographic comparison of three diverse local jurisdictions with such goals: the City of Copenhagen in Denmark, and the City of Melbourne and Byron Shire in Australia. In establishing these goals, policy actors in each place delineate the boundaries between sources and sinks of emissions using similar methods of municipal carbon accounting, but with distinctive preferences for how and where to balance those emissions. Comparison within and between these places reveals patterns of relations and situated contingencies that shape choices and actions in relation to net zero emissions goals. The analysis draws together concepts from anthropology and science and technology studies (STS) to examine local goals for community-scale carbon neutrality. Such goals may take hold as sociotechnical imaginaries that express collective visions for desirable futures. These goals are anchored to particular localities through spatial and conceptual boundaries that are co-produced in relation to objects and scales of climate governance. Enacting carbon neutrality involves reconfiguring open-ended assemblages of heterogeneous social and material elements within and across these boundaries. Friction enables and constrains these reconfigurations, pulling assemblages in new directions to inflect pathways of sociotechnical change. These concepts are tied together through the thesis to generate insights into how policy actors translate the concept of global net zero emissions into local goals for, and actions towards, community-scale carbon neutrality. The thesis demonstrates common processes and relationships involved in collective efforts to imagine and enact community-scale carbon neutrality, and at the same time shows these to be contingent, unstable and continually unfolding. Ethnographic comparison of local climate governance allows us to learn from and imagine other ways of pursuing low carbon futures in response to climate change. Approaching carbon neutrality as relational and contextually specific reveals multiple pathways and possibilities for ecological, social and technical change. Governing human activities and sociotechnical systems towards carbon neutrality is not only about steering processes of change towards a preconceived ideal but also involves ongoing performances of place and community. These practices require reflexivity towards past histories and current contexts, and flexibility to adjust to shifting circumstances.
Assessment of life cycle embodied energy and material cost in Australian shopping centres: Implications for material selection
Shopping centres are the fastest-growing retail space in Australia driven principally by population growth and urban sprawl. A shopping centre undergoes frequent renovations and refurbishments during its life cycle for several reasons. These can include the need to increase foot traffic, improve sales and fixed term leasing periods of retail spaces. The refurbishment frequency of retail shops in shopping centres is exceptional compared to other commercial property assets, with refurbishments every 2 to 10 years. Consequently, building materials in shopping centres experience premature replacements due to economic, functional and social obsolescence. This overexploitation of resources ultimately increases the embodied energy and greenhouse gas emissions in shopping centres. Yet despite this, there is a lack of knowledge on embodied environmental impact of shopping centres in Australia, which constitutes a significant obstacle in achieving improved sustainability. This thesis presents assessments of embodied energy and GHG emissions of shopping centres by developing an object-oriented model with three case study applications. Subregional shopping centres were selected as cases because they represent the largest share of shopping centre floor space (planned and existing) in Australia. The embodied environmental effects of a building are predominantly governed by the materials and assemblies employed in its structure, envelope, and finishes. To minimise embodied effects, it is essential to select building materials with better environmental performances, which might increase life cycle cost. Hence, the object-oriented model prioritises both embodied energy and material cost to identify viable material and assembly solutions. The model assessed and compared 8,820 assembly combinations across 16 different shop types in selected shopping centres. Results demonstrate that the estimated life cycle embodied energy and material cost of a typical single-storey subregional shopping centre are estimated to be around 485 TJ and AU$ 38 million as of 2019, respectively. Recurrent embodied energy is 45% of the total embodied energy, leading to an annual value of 193.15 MJ/m2, which is significantly higher in comparison to other building assets. The largest contributing shop type for life cycle embodied energy and material cost is the centre structure. Results reveal that informed use of current building materials and assemblies (i.e. engineered timber structures, fly ash cement in concrete, cork and other timber based products) significantly reduce embodied energy and emissions (up to 43%) and deliver material cost savings (up to 17%) in comparison to the business as usual scenario. The introduction of a carbon tax is also identified as an effective mechanism to encourage the selection of materials yielding a reduction of embodied energy and GHG emissions. The research outcomes demonstrate that the premature replacements of building materials and assemblies in shopping centres have a significant effect on their embodied energy demand and this varies significantly by shop types. The contributions of this study will allow building designers and other project participants to evaluate material selection decisions while enabling policy makers to develop regulations and guidelines that compel or encourage the selection of materials and assemblies with improved environmental performances. This research contributes to mitigating adverse environmental effects of the built environment.
Depicting Boom Urbanism: A critical investigation of Kalgoorlie and Boulder, Western Australia, 1893-1903
Through a series of written and drawn investigations, this thesis considers the spaces, events and processes of boom urbanism and industrialisation in the East Goldfields of Western Australia between 1893 and 1903 as recorded in photographs and maps. Employing these media, under-utilised in the writing of history of the built environment, the thesis will examine this lacuna in Australia’s urban history. Kalgoorlie and Boulder are the locations of the last great gold rush in Australia. The discovery of alluvial and then deep reef of gold in the East Coolgardie Goldfield has long been acknowledged as a significant moment in Western Australian and Australian history. The industrial and urban transformation of an arid woodland at the very edge of the British Empire had profound economic, social, political, urban and architectural consequences with the movement of people, ideas and technologies from eastern Australia and around the world to Western Australia. While Kalgoorlie and Boulder underwent an urban boom, the towns were concurrently influenced by a number of events that, in complex ways, affected the development of the towns in spatial terms. The thesis explores, describes and analyses a range of photo-textual and cartography objects drawn from the rich archive of visual material created during the period to understand the nature of this development. This is achieved in two stages. Firstly, the exploration of ten photo-textual objects establishes a broad spatial context of the goldfields and towns. Secondly, a more detailed examination of three ephemeral, quotidian and, until now, largely overlooked objects—a souvenir, a newspaper supplement and a series of maps—is undertaken to provide a nuanced understanding of these urban and industrial processes over time. The research makes a number of findings. The first concerns the utilising of novel research methodologies, and the second relates to the new knowledge created through these techniques about the processes of boom urbanism. In the course of establishing and tracing serial and sequential relationships in the visual material examined, the thesis offers lessons on how such material can be used as a source for urban history. In its foregrounding of time and process, as distinct from space and product, the research advocates that visual material demands a more central place in the field of urban history. The research yields new insights and understandings of the way the complex territory of town and mine developed, and through it, a more layered sense of the urban condition emerges. The research reinforces the idea that urbanisation (and industrialisation) needs to be read as temporal even when being explored through static depictions and fixed objects such as photographs, printed matter and maps. The research establishes a series of methods and measures for investigation and understanding of boom urbanism that can be applied to, and tested against, other places, across time and space, that have undergone similar transformations.