School of Geography, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 222
"I used to call him a non-decision-maker-I never do that anymore": parental reflections about training to support decision-making of their adult offspring with intellectual disabilities
(TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2021-08-23)
PURPOSE: A rights perspective proposes supported decision-making as an alternative to substitute decision-making. However, evidence about supported decision-making practice is limited. Our aim was to build evidence about building the capacity of decision supporters. METHODS: Eighteen parents of people with intellectual disabilities were trained in decision support using the La Trobe Support for Decision-making Practice Framework. Data from repeated semi-structured interviews and mentoring sessions were used to capture parental reflections on the value of training. RESULTS: The training acted as a catalyst for parent self-reflection and the Framework prompted them to adopt a more deliberative approach to supporting decision-making. Some parents perceived increased confidence of their adult offspring in expressing preferences resulting from their own changed approach. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the efficacy of this Framework and evidence-based training in building the capacity of parental decision supporters to be consistent with the rights paradigm. IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATIONThe La Trobe Support for Decision-making Practice Framework is an evidence-based approach to decision support practice with an accompanying set of free online resources which can be used by individual practitioners or programs to inform their practice and build the capacity of supporters.Parents of adults with intellectual disabilities value training in the La Trobe Support for Decision-making Practice Framework, which they consider helps to develop their decision support skills and self-reflection.Parents also value individual mentoring following training to assist them to apply the principles of the practice framework to the everyday support for decision-making they provide to their adult son or daughter.Training in support practice should be accompanied by individual mentoring or other strategies to assist parents of adults with intellectual disabilities to discuss and solve the difficult issues they confront in providing decision support more aligned to the rights paradigm.
A Comparative Analysis of Participating and Non-Participating Households in Pro-Poor Tourism in Southern Shaanxi, China
(ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2019-01-01)
The ability of the poor to participate gainfully in pro-poor tourism (PPT) projects is an important but understudied factor in determining poverty alleviation impact. This study aims to address this knowledge gap by exploring the relationship between participation, income, and livelihood capital at the household level using China as a case study. We examined eight PPT projects in southern Shaanxi, a poverty-stricken region that has abundant tourism resources. Our comparative approach revealed the differences between participating and non-participating households. We found that the level of participation is 36% and the main form of participation was through family-run businesses. Participating households earned a significantly higher income than non-participating households. The former also had significantly more material, financial, political, social, and human capital. These findings underscore the capability of tourism as a poverty alleviation tool and reveal problems regarding the growing inequality between participating and non-participating households.
A landscape-scale field experiment reveals the importance of dispersal in a resource-limited metacommunity
Dispersal may play a strong role in driving species diversity across landscapes. Theoretically, dispersal permits species to remain extant within a metacommunity, even if they are periodically excluded from some local communities. Field tests of dispersal effects are difficult, and most non-experimental data suggest that environmental conditions play the predominant role in setting species diversity. However, most such studies cannot differentiate between patterns caused primarily by dispersal constraints vs. abiotic factors vs. biotic constraints (e.g., priority effects). In 22 km of a sand-bed stream in southeastern Australia, strong longitudinal gradients in the abiotic environment and detritus densities (resources) mean that downstream locations have abiotic conditions that may be physiologically stressful, low resource densities and low species diversities. We experimentally increased the retention of detritus over 40 m stream lengths along the gradient, with other sites acting as controls. If dispersal is constrained, or abiotic or biotic factors primarily control community structure, then we predicted that increasing resources would result in no change in species composition. Alternatively, if dispersal is common, we predicted that species diversity would increase at treatment sites through colonization by species able to tolerate abiotic conditions downstream and able to invade established communities. Invertebrates were sampled prior to manipulation and then four times (1, 4, 9 and 12 months) following manipulation. Detrital standing stocks increased by an order of magnitude at treatment sites. Over 1 yr, invertebrate densities and species richness also increased in treatment sites. Effect sizes were strong in middle and downstream areas, which were colonized by upstream species. Thus, faunal composition of the downstream treatment sites became more similar to upstream locales, and β-diversity across treatment sites declined as α-diversity increased. Out of 54 common taxa, roughly half responded to the experiment; responders and non-responders had similar proportions of upstream specialists and of different functional feeding groups. Contrary to many non-experimental studies, our results demonstrate that extensive dispersal can be very important and, for many species, potentially more important than the abiotic environment or biotic constraints in affecting community structure when adequate resources are available.
A method for calculating the duration and intensity of salt intrusions: the Yangtze River estuary
(Copernicus GmbH, 2015-05-13)
Abstract. Studies of intrusions of salt water into estuaries are typically constrained by both the short duration of discharge records and the paucity of observations of discharge and salinity. Thus studies of intrusions of salt water into estuaries typically seek to identify the conditions under which intrusions occur, using detailed observations for periods of 20–60 days. This paper demonstrates a method by which to identify the conditions under which intense intrusions of long duration occur and applies that method to the Yangtze River estuary. The paper constructs a model of the relationship between salinity and discharge and then employs Monte Carlo simulation methods to reconstruct the probability of observing intrusions of differing intensities and durations in relation to discharge. The model predicts that the duration of intrusions with chlorinity ≥250 mg L−1 increases as the number of consecutive days with discharge ≤12 000 m3 s−1 increases; consecutive days of discharges ≤8000 m3 s−1 predict the duration of intrusions with chlorinity ≥400 or 500 mg L−1. In 26 of the 64 years analysed, the probability of an intrusion of at least 60 days at ≥250 mg L−1 is greater than 1 in 1000; in 17 years is greater than 1 in 100; and in ten years is greater than 1 in 10.
A multi-hazards earth science perspective on the COVID-19 pandemic: the potential for concurrent and cascading crises.
(Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-05-16)
Meteorological and geophysical hazards will concur and interact with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) impacts in many regions on Earth. These interactions will challenge the resilience of societies and systems. A comparison of plausible COVID-19 epidemic trajectories with multi-hazard time-series curves enables delineation of multi-hazard scenarios for selected countries (United States, China, Australia, Bangladesh) and regions (Texas). In multi-hazard crises, governments and other responding agents may be required to make complex, highly compromised, hierarchical decisions aimed to balance COVID-19 risks and protocols with disaster response and recovery operations. Contemporary socioeconomic changes (e.g. reducing risk mitigation measures, lowering restrictions on human activity to stimulate economic recovery) may alter COVID-19 epidemiological dynamics and increase future risks relating to natural hazards and COVID-19 interactions. For example, the aggregation of evacuees into communal environments and increased demand on medical, economic, and infrastructural capacity associated with natural hazard impacts may increase COVID-19 exposure risks and vulnerabilities. COVID-19 epidemiologic conditions at the time of a natural hazard event might also influence the characteristics of emergency and humanitarian responses (e.g. evacuation and sheltering procedures, resource availability, implementation modalities, and assistance types). A simple epidemic phenomenological model with a concurrent disaster event predicts a greater infection rate following events during the pre-infection rate peak period compared with post-peak events, highlighting the need for enacting COVID-19 counter measures in advance of seasonal increases in natural hazards. Inclusion of natural hazard inputs into COVID-19 epidemiological models could enhance the evidence base for informing contemporary policy across diverse multi-hazard scenarios, defining and addressing gaps in disaster preparedness strategies and resourcing, and implementing a future-planning systems approach into contemporary COVID-19 mitigation strategies. Our recommendations may assist governments and their advisors to develop risk reduction strategies for natural and cascading hazards during the COVID-19 pandemic.
A New Method for Identifying the Pacific-South American Pattern and Its Influence on Regional Climate Variability
(AMER METEOROLOGICAL SOC, 2016-09-01)
Abstract The Pacific–South American (PSA) pattern is an important mode of climate variability in the mid-to-high southern latitudes. It is widely recognized as the primary mechanism by which El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) influences the southeast Pacific and southwest Atlantic and in recent years has also been suggested as a mechanism by which longer-term tropical sea surface temperature trends can influence the Antarctic climate. This study presents a novel methodology for objectively identifying the PSA pattern. By rotating the global coordinate system such that the equator (a great circle) traces the approximate path of the pattern, the identification algorithm utilizes Fourier analysis as opposed to a traditional empirical orthogonal function approach. The climatology arising from the application of this method to ERA-Interim reanalysis data reveals that the PSA pattern has a strong influence on temperature and precipitation variability over West Antarctica and the Antarctic Peninsula and on sea ice variability in the adjacent Amundsen, Bellingshausen, and Weddell Seas. Identified seasonal trends toward the negative phase of the PSA pattern are consistent with warming observed over the Antarctic Peninsula during autumn, but are inconsistent with observed winter warming over West Antarctica. Only a weak relationship is identified between the PSA pattern and ENSO, which suggests that the pattern might be better conceptualized as a preferred regional atmospheric response to various external (and internal) forcings.