School of Geography, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 222
Wide Distribution of Phage That Infect Freshwater SAR11 Bacteria
(AMER SOC MICROBIOLOGY, 2019-09-01)
Fonsibacter (LD12 subclade) is among the most abundant bacterioplankton in freshwater ecosystems. These bacteria belong to the order Pelagibacterales (SAR11) and are related to Pelagibacter (marine SAR11), which dominates many marine habitats. Although a few Pelagibacter phage (Pelagiphage) have been described, no phage that infect Fonsibacter have been reported. In this study, we describe two groups of Podoviridae phage that infect Fonsibacter A complete Fonsibacter genome containing a prophage was reconstructed from metagenomic data. A circularized and complete genome related to the prophage, referred to as uv-Fonsiphage-EPL (lysogenic strategy), shows high similarity to marine Pelagiphage HTVC025P. Additionally, we reconstructed three complete genomes and one draft genome of phage related to marine Pelagiphage HTVC010P and predicted a lytic strategy. The similarity in codon usage and cooccurrence patterns of HTVC010P-related phage and Fonsibacter suggested that these phage infect Fonsibacter Similar phage were detected in Lake Mendota, Wisconsin, where Fonsibacter is also present. A search of related phage revealed the worldwide distribution of some genotypes in freshwater ecosystems, suggesting their substantial role in shaping indigenous microbial assemblages and influence on biogeochemical cycling. However, the uv-Fonsiphage-EPL and one group of HTVC010P-related phage have a more limited distribution in freshwater ecosystems. Overall, the findings provide insights into the genomic features of phage that infect Fonsibacter and expand understanding of the ecology and evolution of these important bacteria.IMPORTANCE Fonsibacter represents a significant microbial group of freshwater ecosystems. Although the genomic and metabolic features of these bacteria have been well studied, no phage infecting them has been reported. In this study, we reconstructed complete genomes of Fonsibacter and infecting phage and revealed their close relatedness to the phage infecting marine SAR11 members. Also, we illustrated that phage that infect Fonsibacter are widely distributed in freshwater habitats. In summary, the results contribute new insights into the ecology and evolution of Fonsibacter and phage.
Why Don't We Ask? A Complementary Method for Assessing the Status of Great Apes
(PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2011-03-31)
Species conservation is difficult. Threats to species are typically high and immediate. Effective solutions for counteracting these threats, however, require synthesis of high quality evidence, appropriately targeted activities, typically costly implementation, and rapid re-evaluation and adaptation. Conservation management can be ineffective if there is insufficient understanding of the complex ecological, political, socio-cultural, and economic factors that underlie conservation threats. When information about these factors is incomplete, conservation managers may be unaware of the most urgent threats or unable to envision all consequences of potential management strategies. Conservation research aims to address the gap between what is known and what knowledge is needed for effective conservation. Such research, however, generally addresses a subset of the factors that underlie conservation threats, producing a limited, simplistic, and often biased view of complex, real world situations. A combination of approaches is required to provide the complete picture necessary to engage in effective conservation. Orangutan conservation (Pongo spp.) offers an example: standard conservation assessments employ survey methods that focus on ecological variables, but do not usually address the socio-cultural factors that underlie threats. Here, we evaluate a complementary survey method based on interviews of nearly 7,000 people in 687 villages in Kalimantan, Indonesia. We address areas of potential methodological weakness in such surveys, including sampling and questionnaire design, respondent biases, statistical analyses, and sensitivity of resultant inferences. We show that interview-based surveys can provide cost-effective and statistically robust methods to better understand poorly known populations of species that are relatively easily identified by local people. Such surveys provide reasonably reliable estimates of relative presence and relative encounter rates of such species, as well as quantifying the main factors that threaten them. We recommend more extensive use of carefully designed and implemented interview surveys, in conjunction with more traditional field methods.
Why don't people drink Shanghai's tap water?
(Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018-11-30)
Chapter 9 reinforces the central messages of this book. The Changjiang, government institutions, infrastructures and ordinary people comprise an assemblage of interacting actors. The river is a central actor that depends on inputs from the precipitation system, perhaps modified by land uses, dams, extractions and pollution. The river’s interactions with the tidal system produce a propensity to salt intrusions that can interrupt Shanghai’s water supply. Whether or not people drink this water depends on the cleanliness of the water but more on their willingness to trust the government bureaucracies to supply clean water. In other words, technical choices about forms of infrastructure and water management not only have political bases but also have political consequences. An important consequence of this conclusion is that policy models have different effects in different places: the management of water expresses hydrologic processes, and social–political–economic structures.
Why Australia was not wet during spring 2020 despite La Nina
(NATURE PORTFOLIO, 2021-09-16)
The austral spring climate of 2020 was characterised by the occurrence of La Niña, which is the most predictable climate driver of Australian springtime rainfall. Consistent with this La Niña, the Bureau of Meteorology's dynamical sub-seasonal to seasonal forecast system, ACCESS-S1, made highly confident predictions of wetter-than-normal conditions over central and eastern Australia for spring when initialised in July 2020 and thereafter. However, many areas of Australia received near average to severely below average rainfall, particularly during November. Possible causes of the deviation of rainfall from its historical response to La Niña and causes of the forecast error are explored with observational and reanalysis data for the period 1979-2020 and real-time forecasts of ACCESS-S1 initialised in July to November 2020. Several compounding factors were identified as key contributors to the drier-than-anticipated spring conditions. Although the ocean surface to the north of Australia was warmer than normal, which would have acted to promote rainfall over northern Australia, it was not as warm as expected from its historical relationship with La Niña and its long-term warming trend. Moreover, a negative phase of the Indian Ocean Dipole mode, which typically acts to increase spring rainfall in southern Australia, decayed earlier than normal in October. Finally, the Madden-Julian Oscillation activity over the equatorial Indian Ocean acted to suppress rainfall across northern and eastern Australia during November. While ACCESS-S1 accurately predicted the strength of La Niña over the Niño3.4 region, it over-predicted the ocean warming to the north of Australia and under-predicted the strength of the November MJO event, leading to an over-prediction of the Australian spring rainfall and especially the November-mean rainfall.
What contributes to a higher degree of voluntarism in China's rural displacement programmes? Poverty Alleviation Resettlement as a case study
Though it has been an anti-poverty instrument in China since the 1980s, little scholarly attention has been paid to Poverty Alleviation Resettlement (PAR) as a subset of Development-induced Displacement and Resettlement (DIDR). The small number of studies raise questions about the rationale for PAR and the degree of voluntarism. This chapter aims to understand PAR’s voluntary nature in China by asking: (1) what is PAR and what are its characteristics? (2) How voluntary is it? (3) What factors contribute or hinder volition? To address these questions, the chapter delves into the practice of PAR between 2013 and 2015, drawing on 34 cases in the provinces of Shaanxi and Shanxi. The findings demonstrate that currently, even though it presents a relatively high degree of voluntarism compared to other resettlement projects, there remain problems with the nature of this voluntarism. To reduce poverty, PAR in China should foster full participation for the resettled by introducing institutional and supervisory mechanisms, and providing post-resettlement support.
Vulnerability and livelihood restoration of landless households after land acquisition: Evidence from peri-urban China
(PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2018-09-01)
The large-scale rural land acquisition projects for non-agricultural purposes has cast a long shadow on rural households’ livelihoods in China. In this paper, by applying Sustainable Livelihood Framework and vulnerability approach, and based on our longitudinal study (2008–2017) on a land acquisition case in S village, Jining city, Shandong province, we discuss the dynamism of households’ livelihood changes before land acquisition and in decade after land acquisition. It is found that households’ different vulnerabilities and livelihood restorations in decade after land acquisition, are the results of their different capabilities of building various livelihood capitals. Another evident finding is that land acquisition as it is increasingly practiced with China's rapid urbanisation process has triggered risks to most rural households’ livelihoods. The implications of the research indicate the necessity of local governments to guarantee for sustaining rural households’ livelihoods after land acquisition.