School of Geography, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences - Research Publications

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    Editorial
    White, R (Wiley, 2021-01-01)
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    Early diagenetic constraints on Permian seawater chemistry from the Capitan Reef
    Bryant, RN ; Present, TM ; Ahm, ASC ; McClelland, HLO ; Razionale, D ; Blättler, CL (Elsevier BV, 2022-07-01)
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    Existing fossil fuel extraction would warm the world beyond 1.5 degrees C
    Trout, K ; Muttitt, G ; Lafleur, D ; Van de Graaf, T ; Mendelevitch, R ; Mei, L ; Meinshausen, M (IOP Publishing Ltd, 2022-06-01)
    Abstract The Paris climate goals and the Glasgow Climate Pact require anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to decline to net zero by mid-century. This will require overcoming carbon lock-in throughout the energy system. Previous studies have focused on ‘committed emissions’ from capital investments in energy-consuming infrastructure, or potential (committed and uncommitted) emissions from fossil fuel reserves. Here we make the first bottom-up assessment of committed CO2 emissions from fossil fuel-producing infrastructure, defined as existing and under-construction oil and gas fields and coal mines. We use a commercial model of the world’s 25 000 oil and gas fields and build a new dataset on coal mines in the nine largest coal-producing countries. Our central estimate of committed emissions is 936 Gt CO2, comprising 47% from coal, 35% from oil and 18% from gas. We find that staying within a 1.5 °C carbon budget (50% probability) implies leaving almost 40% of ‘developed reserves’ of fossil fuels unextracted. The finding that developed reserves substantially exceed the 1.5 °C carbon budget is robust to a Monte Carlo analysis of reserves data limitations, carbon budget uncertainties and oil prices. This study contributes to growing scholarship on the relevance of fossil fuel supply to climate mitigation. Going beyond recent warnings by the International Energy Agency, our results suggest that staying below 1.5 °C may require governments and companies not only to cease licensing and development of new fields and mines, but also to prematurely decommission a significant portion of those already developed.
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    Nature-based solutions for atoll habitability
    Barnett, J ; Jarillo, S ; Swearer, SE ; Lovelock, CE ; Pomeroy, A ; Konlechner, T ; Waters, E ; Morris, RL ; Lowe, R (ROYAL SOC, 2022-07-04)
    Atoll societies have adapted their environments and social systems for thousands of years, but the rapid pace of climate change may bring conditions that exceed their adaptive capacities. There is growing interest in the use of 'nature-based solutions' to facilitate the continuation of dignified and meaningful lives on atolls through a changing climate. However, there remains insufficient evidence to conclude that these can make a significant contribution to adaptation on atolls, let alone to develop standards and guidelines for their implementation. A sustained programme of research to clarify the potential of nature-based solutions to support the habitability of atolls is therefore vital. In this paper, we provide a prospectus to guide this research programme: we explain the challenge climate change poses to atoll societies, discuss past and potential future applications of nature-based solutions and outline an agenda for transdisciplinary research to advance knowledge of the efficacy and feasibility of nature-based solutions to sustain the habitability of atolls. This article is part of the theme issue 'Nurturing resilient marine ecosystems'.
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    Coastal transitions: Small-scale fisheries, livelihoods, and maritime zone developments in Southeast Asia
    Fabinyi, M ; Belton, B ; Dressler, WH ; Knudsen, M ; Adhuri, DS ; Abdul Aziz, A ; Akber, MA ; Kittitornkool, J ; Kongkaew, C ; Marschke, M ; Pido, M ; Stacey, N ; Steenbergen, DJ ; Vandergeest, P (Elsevier BV, 2022-04-01)
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    Tourist skills
    Mertena, I ; Kaaristo, M ; Edensor, T (Elsevier BV, 2022-05-01)
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    From legacy contamination to watershed systems science: a review of scientific insights and technologies developed through DOE-supported research in water and energy security
    Dwivedi, D ; Steefel, C ; Arora, B ; Banfield, J ; Bargar, J ; Boyanov, M ; Brooks, SC ; Chen, X ; Hubbard, SS ; Kaplan, D ; Kemner, KM ; Nico, PS ; O'Loughlin, EJ ; Pierce, EM ; Painter, SL ; Scheibe, TD ; Wainwright, HM ; Williams, KH ; Zavarin, M (IOP Publishing Ltd, 2022-04-01)
    Abstract Water resources, including groundwater and prominent rivers worldwide, are under duress because of excessive contaminant and nutrient loads. To help mitigate this problem, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has supported research since the late 1980s to improve our fundamental knowledge of processes that could be used to help clean up challenging subsurface problems. Problems of interest have included subsurface radioactive waste, heavy metals, and metalloids (e.g. uranium, mercury, arsenic). Research efforts have provided insights into detailed groundwater biogeochemical process coupling and the resulting geochemical exports of metals and nutrients to surrounding environments. Recently, an increased focus has been placed on constraining the exchanges and fates of carbon and nitrogen within and across bedrock to canopy compartments of a watershed and in river–floodplain settings, because of their important role in driving biogeochemical interactions with contaminants and the potential of increased fluxes under changing precipitation regimes, including extreme events. While reviewing the extensive research that has been conducted at DOE’s representative sites and testbeds (such as the Oyster Site in Virginia, Savannah River Site in South Carolina, Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee, Hanford in Washington, Nevada National Security Site in Nevada, Riverton in Wyoming, and Rifle and East River in Colorado), this review paper explores the nature and distribution of contaminants in the surface and shallow subsurface (i.e. the critical zone) and their interactions with carbon and nitrogen dynamics. We also describe state-of-the-art, scale-aware characterization approaches and models developed to predict contaminant fate and transport. The models take advantage of DOE leadership-class high-performance computers and are beginning to incorporate artificial intelligence approaches to tackle the extreme diversity of hydro-biogeochemical processes and measurements. Recognizing that the insights and capability developments are potentially transferable to many other sites, we also explore the scientific implications of these advances and recommend future research directions.
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    Mit Umweltethik gegen Pandemien: Warum Tierrechte und Naturschutz auch den Menschen nutzen
    Bossert, LN ; Schlegel, LM (Oekom Publishers GmbH, 2021-07-15)
    Das Entstehen von Pandemien wie COVID-19 wird auch durch menschliche Eingriffe in die Natur begünstigt. Die Umweltethik bietet Argumente, um unseren Umgang mit Pflanzen und Tieren zu bewerten und einen schonenden, respektvollen Umgang mit der außermenschlichen Natur zu befördern. So sollte etwa tierethischen Belangen mehr Aufmerksamkeit geschenkt werden ‐ im Interesse der Tiere wie auch zur Prävention von Pandemien.