Optometry and Vision Sciences - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 257
Altered Corneal Epithelial Dendritic Cell Morphology and Phenotype Following Acute Exposure to Hyperosmolar Saline
(Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, 2021-02-01)
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the morphological and phenotypic responses of corneal epithelial dendritic cells (DCs) to acute topical hyperosmolar stress, given a pathogenic role for tear hyperosmolarity in dry eye disease (DED). Methods: C57BL/6J mice were anesthetized and received 350 mOsm/L (physiological; n = 5 mice), 450 mOsm/L (n = 6), or 600 mOsm/L (n = 6) saline on a randomly assigned eye. Corneas were harvested 2 hours later. Immunofluorescent staining was performed using CD45, CD86, and CD68 antibodies to investigate DC morphology (density, viability, field area, circularity, and dendritic complexity) and immunological phenotype. Flow cytometry was used to confirm CD86 and CD68 expression in CD11c+ DCs, using C57BL/6J mice that received topical applications of 350 mOsm/L, 450 mOsm/L, or 600 mOsm/L (n = 5 per group) bilaterally for 2 hours. Results: Following exposure to 450 mOsm/L topical saline for 2 hours, DCs in the central and peripheral cornea were larger (field area: Pcentral = 0.005, Pperipheral = 0.037; circularity: Pcentral = 0.026, and Pperipheral = 0.013) and had higher expression of CD86 compared with 350 mOsm/L controls (immunofluorescence: P < 0.0001; flow cytometry: P = 0.0058). After application of 600 mOsm/L saline, DC morphology was unchanged, although the percentage of fragmented DCs, and phenotypic expression of CD86 (immunofluorescence: P < 0.0001; and flow cytometry: P = 0.003) and CD68 (immunofluorescence: P = 0.024) were higher compared to 350 mOsm/L controls. Conclusions: Short-term exposure to mild hyperosmolar saline (450 mOsm/L) induced morphological and phenotypic maturation in corneal epithelial DCs. More severe hyperosmolar insult (600 mOsm/L) for 2 hours appeared toxic to these cells. These data suggest that hyperosmolar conditions activate corneal DCs, which may have implications for understanding DC activation in DED.
Direct visualization and characterization of erythrocyte flow in human retinal capillaries
(OPTICAL SOC AMER, 2012-12-01)
Imaging the retinal vasculature offers a surrogate view of systemic vascular health, allowing noninvasive and longitudinal assessment of vascular pathology. The earliest anomalies in vascular disease arise in the microvasculature, however current imaging methods lack the spatiotemporal resolution to track blood flow at the capillary level. We report here on novel imaging technology that allows direct, noninvasive optical imaging of erythrocyte flow in human retinal capillaries. This was made possible using adaptive optics for high spatial resolution (1.5 μm), sCMOS camera technology for high temporal resolution (460 fps), and tunable wavebands from a broadband laser for maximal erythrocyte contrast. Particle image velocimetry on our data sequences was used to quantify flow. We observed marked spatiotemporal variability in velocity, which ranged from 0.3 to 3.3 mm/s, and changed by up to a factor of 4 in a given capillary during the 130 ms imaging period. Both mean and standard deviation across the imaged capillary network varied markedly with time, yet their ratio remained a relatively constant parameter (0.50 ± 0.056). Our observations concur with previous work using less direct methods, validating this as an investigative tool for the study of microvascular disease in humans.
Limitations to adaptive optics image quality in rodent eyes
(OPTICAL SOC AMER, 2012-08-01)
Adaptive optics (AO) retinal image quality of rodent eyes is inferior to that of human eyes, despite the promise of greater numerical aperture. This paradox challenges several assumptions commonly made in AO imaging, assumptions which may be invalidated by the very high power and dioptric thickness of the rodent retina. We used optical modeling to compare the performance of rat and human eyes under conditions that tested the validity of these assumptions. Results showed that AO image quality in the human eye is robust to positioning errors of the AO corrector and to differences in imaging depth and wavelength compared to the wavefront beacon. In contrast, image quality in the rat eye declines sharply with each of these manipulations, especially when imaging off-axis. However, some latitude does exist to offset these manipulations against each other to produce good image quality.
A Three-Dimensional Atlas of the Honeybee Neck
(PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2010-05-24)
Three-dimensional digital atlases are rapidly becoming indispensible in modern biology. We used serial sectioning combined with manual registration and segmentation of images to develop a comprehensive and detailed three-dimensional atlas of the honeybee head-neck system. This interactive atlas includes skeletal structures of the head and prothorax, the neck musculature, and the nervous system. The scope and resolution of the model exceeds atlases previously developed on similar sized animals, and the interactive nature of the model provides a far more accessible means of interpreting and comprehending insect anatomy and neuroanatomy.
Edge Detection in Landing Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus)
(PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2009-10-07)
BACKGROUND: While considerable scientific effort has been devoted to studying how birds navigate over long distances, relatively little is known about how targets are detected, obstacles are avoided and smooth landings are orchestrated. Here we examine how visual features in the environment, such as contrasting edges, determine where a bird will land. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Landing in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) was investigated by training them to fly from a perch to a feeder, and video-filming their landings. The feeder was placed on a grey disc that produced a contrasting edge against a uniformly blue background. We found that the birds tended to land primarily at the edge of the disc and walk to the feeder, even though the feeder was in the middle of the disc. This suggests that the birds were using the visual contrast at the boundary of the disc to target their landings. When the grey level of the disc was varied systematically, whilst keeping the blue background constant, there was one intermediate grey level at which the budgerigar's preference for the disc boundary disappeared. The budgerigars then landed randomly all over the test surface. Even though this disc is (for humans) clearly distinguishable from the blue background, it offers very little contrast against the background, in the red and green regions of the spectrum. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that budgerigars use visual edges to target and guide landings. Calculations of photoreceptor excitation reveal that edge detection in landing budgerigars is performed by a color-blind luminance channel that sums the signals from the red and green photoreceptors, or, alternatively, receives input from the red double-cones. This finding has close parallels to vision in honeybees and primates, where edge detection and motion perception are also largely color-blind.
Interventions to improve cultural competency in healthcare: a systematic review of reviews
BACKGROUND: Cultural competency is a recognized and popular approach to improving the provision of health care to racial/ethnic minority groups in the community with the aim of reducing racial/ethnic health disparities. The aim of this systematic review of reviews is to gather and synthesize existing reviews of studies in the field to form a comprehensive understanding of the current evidence base that can guide future interventions and research in the area. METHODS: A systematic review of review articles published between January 2000 and June 2012 was conducted. Electronic databases (including Medline, Cinahl and PsycINFO), reference lists of articles, and key websites were searched. Reviews of cultural competency in health settings only were included. Each review was critically appraised by two authors using a study appraisal tool and were given a quality assessment rating of weak, moderate or strong. RESULTS: Nineteen published reviews were identified. Reviews consisted of between 5 and 38 studies, included a variety of health care settings/contexts and a range of study types. There were three main categories of study outcomes: patient-related outcomes, provider-related outcomes, and health service access and utilization outcomes. The majority of reviews found moderate evidence of improvement in provider outcomes and health care access and utilization outcomes but weaker evidence for improvements in patient/client outcomes. CONCLUSION: This review of reviews indicates that there is some evidence that interventions to improve cultural competency can improve patient/client health outcomes. However, a lack of methodological rigor is common amongst the studies included in reviews and many of the studies rely on self-report, which is subject to a range of biases, while objective evidence of intervention effectiveness was rare. Future research should measure both healthcare provider and patient/client health outcomes, consider organizational factors, and utilize more rigorous study designs.
Optical Imaging of Human Cone Photoreceptors Directly Following the Capture of Light
(PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2013-11-15)
Capture of light in the photoreceptor outer segment initiates a cascade of chemical events that inhibit neurotransmitter release, ultimately resulting in vision. The massed response of the photoreceptor population can be measured non-invasively by electrical recordings, but responses from individual cells cannot be measured without dissecting the retina. Here we used optical imaging to observe individual human cones in the living eye as they underwent bleaching of photopigment and associated phototransduction. The retina was simultaneously stimulated and observed with high intensity visible light at 1 kHz, using adaptive optics. There was marked variability between individual cones in both photosensitivity and pigment optical density, challenging the conventional assumption that photoreceptors act as identical subunits (coefficient of variation in rate of photoisomerization = 23%). There was also a pronounced inverse correlation between these two parameters (p<10(-7)); the temporal evolution of image statistics revealed this to be a dynamic relationship, with cone waveguiding efficiency beginning a dramatic increase within 3 ms of light onset. Beginning as early as 2 ms after light onset and including half of cells by ∼7 ms, cone intensity showed reversals characteristic of interference phenomena, with greater delays in reversal corresponding to cones with more photopigment (p<10(-3)). The timing of these changes is argued to best correspond with either the cessation of dark current, or to related events such as changes in intracellular cGMP. Cone intensity also showed fluctuations of high frequency (332±25 Hz) and low amplitude (3.0±0.85%). Other groups have shown similar fluctuations that were directly evoked by light; if this corresponds to the same phenomenon, we propose that the amplitude of fluctuation may be increased by the use of a bright flash followed by a brief pause, to allow recovery of cone circulating current.
Ocellar structure and neural innervation in the honeybee
(FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2014-02-19)
Honeybees have a visual system composed of three ocelli (simple eyes) located on the top of the head, in addition to two large compound eyes. Although experiments have been conducted to investigate the role of the ocelli within the visual system, their optical characteristics, and function remain controversial. In this study, we created three-dimensional (3-D) reconstructions of the honeybee ocelli, conducted optical measurements and filled ocellar descending neurons to assist in determining the role of ocelli in honeybees. In both the median and lateral ocelli, the ocellar retinas can be divided into dorsal and ventral parts. Using the 3-D model we were able to assess the viewing angles of the retinas. The dorsal retinas view the horizon while the ventral retinas view the sky, suggesting quite different roles in attitude control. We used the hanging drop technique to assess the spatial resolution of the retinas. The lateral ocelli have significantly higher spatial resolution compared to the median ocellus. In addition, we established which ocellar retinas provide the input to five pairs of large ocellar descending neurons. We found that four of the neuron pairs have their dendritic fields in the dorsal retinas of the lateral ocelli, while the fifth has fine dendrites in the ventral retina. One of the neuron pairs also sends very fine dendrites into the border region between the dorsal and ventral retinas of the median ocellus.
Increasing the Spatial Resolution of Visual Field Tests Without Increasing Test Duration: An Evaluation of ARREST
(Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, 2020-12)
Purpose: The Australian Reduced Range Extended Spatial Test (ARREST) approach was designed to improve visual field spatial resolution while maintaining a similar test duration to clinically used testing algorithms. ARREST does not completely threshold visual field locations with sensitivity < 17 dB, and uses the presentations saved to test new locations in areas of steep gradient within the visual field. Previous assessments of ARREST's performance have used computer simulation. In this study, we cross-sectionally assessed the performance of ARREST in people with visual field loss. Methods: We tested 23 people with glaucoma (mean age: 71 ± 8 years) with established visual field loss. Three visual field procedures were performed using the Open Perimetry Interface: cZEST and ARREST on the Octopus 900 perimeter (Haag-Streit AG, Switzerland), and a reference standard (best available estimate [BAE]) on the Compass perimeter (CenterVue SpA, Italy). ARREST was compared against the cZEST and the BAE. Results: On average, ARREST added seven new locations (range = 0-15) to a visual field test. There was no significant difference in the number of stimulus presentations between procedures (mean = 259 ± 25 [ARREST] vs. 261 ± 25 [cZEST], P = 0.78). In classifying threshold values < 17 dB, ARREST performed similarly when compared against BAE. Conclusions: This study provides empirical evidence to support conclusions from previous computer simulations that ARREST can be used to increase spatial sampling in regions of interest without increasing test time. Translational Relevance: ARREST is a new approach that augments current visual field testing procedures to provide better spatial description of visual field defects without increasing test duration.
MR-EYE: High-Resolution MRI of the Human Eye and Orbit at Ultrahigh Field (7T)
Key points • Dedicated eye imaging can be implemented at 7T to acquire high-resolution, high contrast-to-noise, and high signal-to-noise images in a feasible imaging time suitable for clinical use. • Simple, reproducible participant preparation techniques can be adopted to reduce the motion of the eye leading to a reduction in subsequent artefacts. • Sequences available at ultrahigh field can be used in current 7T clinical applications to visualize ocular structures otherwise impossible with other ophthalmic imaging.
Ultra-High Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Retrobulbar Optic Nerve, Subarachnoid Space, and Optic Nerve Sheath in Emmetropic and Myopic Eyes
(Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO), 2021-02-09)
Purpose: We aimed to image the optic nerve, subarachnoid space and optic nerve sheath in emmetropes and myopes ultra-high field (7-Tesla) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We targeted the retrobulbar distance of approximately 3 mm behind the eyeball, an area of clinical interest because of optic nerve sheath distensibility and pressure-related enlargement. Methods: Eleven emmetropes (+0.75 to −0.50D, aged 20–41 years) and 10 myopes (−4.5 to −12D, aged 21–37 years) participated. Cross-sectional area of the optic nerve, subarachnoid space and optic nerve sheath at approximately 3 mm behind the eye were measured from two-dimensional T2-weighted coronal oblique MRI images obtained through the left optic nerve. Axial length of the left eye was measured from T2-weighted axial MRI images. In nine emmetropes and seven myopes, the optic nerve head was imaged with optical coherence tomography to compare retrobulbar and intraocular measures. Results: Retrobulbar optic nerve, subarachnoid space and optic nerve sheath dimensions differed between myopes and emmetropes. Myopes tended to have smaller optic nerve and subarachnoid space. Longer MRI-derived axial length was associated with smaller optic nerve area (P = 0.03). Bruch's membrane opening area did not predict retrobulbar optic nerve area (P = 0.48). Conclusions: This study demonstrates the feasibility of using 7-Tesla MRI to measure optic nerve, subarachnoid space, and optic nerve sheath dimensions behind the eye. In healthy adults, the retrobulbar optic nerve and subarachnoid space size are influenced by the degree of myopia. Translational Relevance: ultra-high field MRI is a practical tool for assessing the morphometry of the optic nerve and surrounding anatomy behind the eye.
Longitudinal assessment of reflexive and volitional saccades in Niemann-Pick Type C disease during treatment with miglustat
BACKGROUND: Niemann-Pick Type C disease (NPC), is an autosomal recessive neurovisceral disorder of lipid metabolism. One characteristic feature of NPC is a vertical supranuclear gaze palsy particularly affecting saccades. However, horizontal saccades are also impaired and as a consequence a parameter related to horizontal peak saccadic velocity was used as an outcome measure in the clinical trial of miglustat, the first drug approved in several jurisdictions for the treatment of NPC. As NPC-related neuropathology is widespread in the brain we examined a wider range of horizontal saccade parameters and to determine whether these showed treatment-related improvement and, if so, if this was maintained over time. METHODS: Nine adult NPC patients participated in the study; 8 were treated with miglustat for periods between 33 and 61 months. Data were available for 2 patients before their treatment commenced and 1 patient was untreated. Tasks included reflexive saccades, antisaccades and self-paced saccades, with eye movements recorded by an infrared reflectance eye tracker. Parameters analysed were reflexive saccade gain and latency, asymptotic peak saccadic velocity, HSEM-α (the slope of the peak duration-amplitude regression line), antisaccade error percentage, self-paced saccade count and time between refixations on the self-paced task. Data were analysed by plotting the change from baseline as a proportion of the baseline value at each test time and, where multiple data values were available at each session, by linear mixed effects (LME) analysis. RESULTS: Examination of change plots suggested some modest sustained improvement in gain, no consistent changes in asymptotic peak velocity or HSEM-α, deterioration in the already poor antisaccade error rate and sustained improvement in self-paced saccade rate. LME analysis showed statistically significant improvement in gain and the interval between self-paced saccades, with differences over time between treated and untreated patients. CONCLUSIONS: Both qualitative examination of change scores and statistical evaluation with LME analysis support the idea that some saccadic parameters are robust indicators of efficacy, and that the variability observed across measures may indicate locally different effects of neurodegeneration and of drug actions.