Executive function in body dysmorphic disorder
AuthorDunai, J.; Labuschagne, I.; Castle, D. J.; Kyrios, M.; Rossell, S. L.
Source TitlePsychological Medicine
PublisherCambridge University Press
AffiliationSchool of Behavioural Science, Department of Psychology
Department of Psychiatry, St Vincent’s Hospital
Document TypeJournal Article
CitationsDunai, J., Labuschagne, I., Castle, D. J., Kyrios, M., & Rossell, S. L. (2010). Executive function in body dysmorphic disorder. Psychological Medicine, 40(9), 1541-1548.
Access StatusOpen Access
Background: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a poorly understood disorder that involves a preoccupation with imagined or minor bodily defects. Only a few studies of neuropsychological function have been conducted. Two previous studies have indicated executive dysfunction in BDD. The current study sought to further deﬁne these executive deﬁcits. Method: Fourteen DSM-IV BDD patients and 14 age- and sex-matched control participants took part. Because of the high incidence of co-morbidity in BDD, patients with co-morbid Axis I disorders were not excluded. Control participants had no history of psychiatric illness. All participants completed the following executive function (EF) tests : Spatial Span (SS), Spatial Working Memory (SWM) and the Stockings of Cambridge (SOC) task. They also completed the Pattern Recognition (PR) test, a test of visual memory (VM). Results: BDD participants made signiﬁcantly more between-search errors on the SWM task, an eﬀect that increased with task diﬃculty. Between-search errors are an example of poor maintenance and manipulation of information. SOC results indicated slower subsequent thinking times (i.e. the time taken to plan) in BDD participants. There were no group diﬀerences in SS or PR scores. The severity of BDD, depressive or anxiety symptoms was not correlated with performance on any of the cognitive tasks. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that BDD patients have EF deﬁcits in on-line manipulation, planning and organization of information. By contrast, spatial memory capacity, motor speed and visual memory were intact. Considered with evidence from lesion and neuroimaging studies, these results suggest frontal lobe dysfunction in BDD.
Keywordsbody dysmorphic disorder; executive disfunction
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