Computing and Information Systems - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 1833
Good Proctor or "Big Brother"? Ethics of Online Exam Supervision Technologies.
(Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-08-31)
Online exam supervision technologies have recently generated significant controversy and concern. Their use is now booming due to growing demand for online courses and for off-campus assessment options amid COVID-19 lockdowns. Online proctoring technologies purport to effectively oversee students sitting online exams by using artificial intelligence (AI) systems supplemented by human invigilators. Such technologies have alarmed some students who see them as a "Big Brother-like" threat to liberty and privacy, and as potentially unfair and discriminatory. However, some universities and educators defend their judicious use. Critical ethical appraisal of online proctoring technologies is overdue. This essay provides one of the first sustained moral philosophical analyses of these technologies, focusing on ethical notions of academic integrity, fairness, non-maleficence, transparency, privacy, autonomy, liberty, and trust. Most of these concepts are prominent in the new field of AI ethics, and all are relevant to education. The essay discusses these ethical issues. It also offers suggestions for educational institutions and educators interested in the technologies about the kinds of inquiries they need to make and the governance and review processes they might need to adopt to justify and remain accountable for using online proctoring technologies. The rapid and contentious rise of proctoring software provides a fruitful ethical case study of how AI is infiltrating all areas of life. The social impacts and moral consequences of this digital technology warrant ongoing scrutiny and study.
Videogames and guns in adolescents: T ests of a bipartite theory
(PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2020-08-01)
The possible role of video gaming in imprinting aggressive and specifically gun-related behaviors has been elusive, and findings regarding these associations have been inconsistent. I address this gap by proposing and testing a bipartite theory that can explain inconsistent results regarding the previously assumed linear association between videogames and gun-related behaviors. The theory suggests that this association follows a U-shape. It posits that at low levels of video gaming time, video gaming displaces gun-related behaviors and shelters adolescents by keeping them occupied and by reducing opportunities and motivation to acquire guns. However, at some level of gaming time (because most popular games adolescents play include violent aspects), the assumed imprinting of aggressive behaviors overpowers the positive displacement force, and this can trivialize and naturalize gun-carrying behaviors, and ultimately increase motivation to obtain and carry guns. I tested this theory with two national samples of American adolescents (n1 = 24,779 and n2 = 26,543, out of which 403 and 378, respectively, reported bringing a gun to school in the last month). Multiple analyses supported the proposed U-shaped association. These findings show that the moral panic over video games is largely unsubstantiated, especially among light to moderate gamers.
Robots and the Possibility of Humanistic Care
Care robots are likely to perform increasingly sophisticated caring activities that some will consider comforting and valuable. They will get increasingly humanlike and lifelike. This paper addresses the conceptual question: Even if robots can assist and ease people's suffering, can such machines provide humanistic care? Arguably, humanistic care is the most humanly distinctive and deepest form of care there is. As such, it may be thought to show most starkly the gulf between human and robot caregiving. The paper argues that humanistic caregiving is indeed a distinctive form of 'affective' care dependent on certain uniquely human characteristics or aspects of our humanity which can provide a profound kind of comfort to suffering people. It then argues that there is an important conceptual sense in which robots cannot provide humanistic care. Nonetheless, the paper subsequently suggests that we may recognize a useful sense in which robots, of a suitably anthropomorphic type, can provide humanistic care. Robots might 'express' to people with physical, social, or emotional needs the kind of humanistic care that only human beings can provide but that sufferers can nonetheless receive comfort from precisely because of what is expressed to them. Although this sense of humanistic robot care is derivative from uniquely human care, and although it is wide open to social and ethical criticism, it is nonetheless an idea worth clarifying for anyone interested in the possibilities and limits of robot care.
A MultiCenter Analysis of Factors Associated with Hearing Outcome for 2,735 Adults with Cochlear Implants.
(SAGE Publications, 2021-01)
While the majority of cochlear implant recipients benefit from the device, it remains difficult to estimate the degree of benefit for a specific patient prior to implantation. Using data from 2,735 cochlear-implant recipients from across three clinics, the largest retrospective study of cochlear-implant outcomes to date, we investigate the association between 21 preoperative factors and speech recognition approximately one year after implantation and explore the consistency of their effects across the three constituent datasets. We provide evidence of 17 statistically significant associations, in either univariate or multivariate analysis, including confirmation of associations for several predictive factors, which have only been examined in prior smaller studies. Despite the large sample size, a multivariate analysis shows that the variance explained by our models remains modest across the datasets (R2=0.12-0.21). Finally, we report a novel statistical interaction indicating that the duration of deafness in the implanted ear has a stronger impact on hearing outcome when considered relative to a candidate's age. Our multicenter study highlights several real-world complexities that impact the clinical translation of predictive factors for cochlear implantation outcome. We suggest several directions to overcome these challenges and further improve our ability to model patient outcomes with increased accuracy.
Relative Pose Based Redundancy Removal: Collaborative RGB-D Data Transmission in Mobile Visual Sensor Networks
In this paper, the Relative Pose based Redundancy Removal (RPRR) scheme is presented, which has been designed for mobile RGB-D sensor networks operating under bandwidth-constrained operational scenarios. The scheme considers a multiview scenario in which pairs of sensors observe the same scene from different viewpoints, and detect the redundant visual and depth information to prevent their transmission leading to a significant improvement in wireless channel usage efficiency and power savings. We envisage applications in which the environment is static, and rapid 3D mapping of an enclosed area of interest is required, such as disaster recovery and support operations after earthquakes or industrial accidents. Experimental results show that wireless channel utilization is improved by 250% and battery consumption is halved when the RPRR scheme is used instead of sending the sensor images independently.
The Use and Promise of Conversational Agents in Digital Health.
(Georg Thieme Verlag KG, 2021-08)
OBJECTIVES: To describe the use and promise of conversational agents in digital health-including health promotion andprevention-and how they can be combined with other new technologies to provide healthcare at home. METHOD: A narrative review of recent advances in technologies underpinning conversational agents and their use and potential for healthcare and improving health outcomes. RESULTS: By responding to written and spoken language, conversational agents present a versatile, natural user interface and have the potential to make their services and applications more widely accessible. Historically, conversational interfaces for health applications have focused mainly on mental health, but with an increase in affordable devices and the modernization of health services, conversational agents are becoming more widely deployed across the health system. We present our work on context-aware voice assistants capable of proactively engaging users and delivering health information and services. The proactive voice agents we deploy, allow us to conduct experience sampling in people's homes and to collect information about the contexts in which users are interacting with them. CONCLUSION: In this article, we describe the state-of-the-art of these and other enabling technologies for speech and conversation and discuss ongoing research efforts to develop conversational agents that "live" with patients and customize their service offerings around their needs. These agents can function as 'digital companions' who will send reminders about medications and appointments, proactively check in to gather self-assessments, and follow up with patients on their treatment plans. Together with an unobtrusive and continuous collection of other health data, conversational agents can provide novel and deeply personalized access to digital health care, and they will continue to become an increasingly important part of the ecosystem for future healthcare delivery.
The Evolution of Clinical Knowledge During COVID-19: Towards a Global Learning Health System.
(Georg Thieme Verlag KG, 2021-08)
OBJECTIVES: We examine the knowledge ecosystem of COVID-19, focusing on clinical knowledge and the role of health informatics as enabling technology. We argue for commitment to the model of a global learning health system to facilitate rapid knowledge translation supporting health care decision making in the face of emerging diseases. METHODS AND RESULTS: We frame the evolution of knowledge in the COVID-19 crisis in terms of learning theory, and present a view of what has occurred during the pandemic to rapidly derive and share knowledge as an (underdeveloped) instance of a global learning health system. We identify the key role of information technologies for electronic data capture and data sharing, computational modelling, evidence synthesis, and knowledge dissemination. We further highlight gaps in the system and barriers to full realisation of an efficient and effective global learning health system. CONCLUSIONS: The need for a global knowledge ecosystem supporting rapid learning from clinical practice has become more apparent than ever during the COVID-19 pandemic. Continued effort to realise the vision of a global learning health system, including establishing effective approaches to data governance and ethics to support the system, is imperative to enable continuous improvement in our clinical care.
Explainable models for forecasting the emergence of political instability
(PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2021-07-29)
Building on previous research on the use of macroeconomic factors for conflict prediction and using data on political instability provided by the Political Instability Task Force, this article proposes two minimal forecasting models of political instability optimised to have the greatest possible predictive power for one-year and two-year event horizons, while still making predictions that are fully explainable. Both models employ logistic regression and use just three predictors: polity code (a measure of government type), infant mortality, and years of stability (i.e., years since the last instability event). These models make predictions for 176 countries on a country-year basis and achieve AUPRC's of 0.108 and 0.115 for the one-year and two-year models respectively. They use public data with ongoing availability so are readily reproducible. They use Monte Carlo simulations to construct confidence intervals for their predictions and are validated by testing their predictions for a set of reference years separate from the set of reference years used to train them. This validation shows that the models are not overfitted but suggests that some of the previous models in the literature may have been. The models developed in this article are able to explain their predictions by showing, for a given prediction, which predictors were the most influential and by using counterfactuals to show how the predictions would have been altered had these predictors taken different values. These models are compared to models created by lasso regression and it is shown that they have at least as good predictive power but that their predictions can be more readily explained. Because policy makers are more likely to be influenced by models whose predictions can explained, the more interpretable a model is the more likely it is to influence policy.
The Information and Communication Technology User Role: Implications for the Work Role and Inter-Role Spillover
(FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2016-12-27)
Management and organization research has traditionally focused on employees' work role and the interface between their work and family roles. We suggest that persons assume a third role in modern society that is relevant to work and organizations, namely the Information and Communication Technology User (ICTU) role. Based on role theory and boundary theory, we develop propositions about the characteristics of this role, as well as how ICTU role characteristics are related to boundary spanning activity, inter-role spillover with the work role, and work role performance. To this end, we first conceptualize the ICTU role and its associations with work and family roles. We then apply identity theory and boundary management theory to advance our understanding of how the ICTU role is related to criteria that are important to individuals and to organizations, namely self-selection into certain types of work roles and positive and negative inter-role spillover. The implications of this role for theory, research, and practice in management and organizations are discussed.
Modulation of Brain Activity with Noninvasive Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS): Clinical Applications and Safety Concerns
(FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2017-05-10)
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a widely-used tool to induce neuroplasticity and modulate cortical function by applying weak direct current over the scalp. In this review, we first introduce the underlying mechanism of action, the brief history from discovery to clinical scientific research, electrode positioning and montages, and parameter setup of tDCS. Then, we review tDCS application in clinical samples including people with drug addiction, major depression disorder, Alzheimer's disease, as well as in children. This review covers the typical characteristics and the underlying neural mechanisms of tDCS treatment in such studies. This is followed by a discussion of safety, especially when the current intensity is increased or the stimulation duration is prolonged. Given such concerns, we provide detailed suggestions regarding safety procedures for tDCS operation. Lastly, future research directions are discussed. They include foci on the development of multi-tech combination with tDCS such as with TMS and fMRI; long-term behavioral and morphological changes; possible applications in other research domains, and more animal research to deepen the understanding of the biological and physiological mechanisms of tDCS stimulation.
A Tripartite Neurocognitive Model of internet Gaming Disorder
(FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2017-12-14)
Playing Internet games has emerged as a growing in prevalence leisure activity. In some cases, excess gaming can lead to addiction-like symptoms and aversive outcomes that may be seen by some as manifestations of a behavioral addiction. Even though agreement regarding the pathologizing of excessive video gaming is not yet achieved and perhaps because the field requires more research, many works have examined the antecedents and outcomes of what is termed internet gaming disorder (IGD). In this article, we aim at summarizing perspectives and findings related to the neurocognitive processes that may underlie IGD and map such findings onto the triadic-system that governs behavior and decision-making, the deficits in which have been shown to be associated with many addictive disorders. This tripartite system model includes the following three brain systems: (1) the impulsive system, which often mediates fast, automatic, unconscious, and habitual behaviors; (2) the reflective system, which mediates deliberating, planning, predicting future outcomes of selected behaviors, and exerting inhibitory control; and (3) the interoceptive awareness system, which generates a state of craving through the translation of somatic signals into a subjective state of drive. We suggest that IGD formation and maintenance can be associated with (1) a hyperactive "impulsive" system; (2) a hypoactive "reflective" system, as exacerbated by (3) an interoceptive awareness system that potentiates the activity of the impulsive system, and/or hijacks the goal-driven cognitive resources needed for the normal operation of the reflective system. Based on this review, we propose ways to improve the therapy and treatment of IGD and reduce the risk of relapse among recovering IGD populations.